Firmware

In electronic systems and computing, firmware is the combination of persistent memory and program code and data stored in it. Typical examples of devices containing firmware are embedded systems (such as traffic lights, consumer appliances, and digital watches), computers, computer peripherals, mobile phones, and digital cameras. The firmware contained in these devices provides the control program for the device. Firmware is held in non-volatile memory devices such as ROM, EPROM, or flash memory. Changing the firmware of a device may rarely or never be done during its economic lifetime; some firmware memory devices are permanently installed and cannot be changed after manufacture. Common reasons for updating firmware include fixing bugs or adding features to the device. This may require physically changing ROM integrated circuits, or reprogramming flash memory with a special procedure. Firmware such as the ROM BIOS of a personal computer may contain only elementary basic functions of a device and may only provide services to higher-level software. Firmware such as the program of an embedded system may be the only program that will run on the system and provide all of its functions.

Before integrated circuits, other firmware devices included a discrete semiconductor diode matrix. The Apollo guidance computer had firmware consisting of a specially manufactured core memory plane, called "core rope memory", where data was stored by physically threading wires through (1) or around (0) the core storing each data bit.

Read more about FirmwareOrigin of The Term, Personal Computers, Consumer Products, Automobiles, Examples, Firmware Hacking

Other articles related to "firmware":

Samsung I8910 - Firmware
... Hobbyists have provided unofficial firmware updates. ...
Canon EOS 40D - Firmware and Software
... As of March 2012, the latest firmware is 1.1.1, released 20 January 2009 ... The firmware updates have fixed some bugs, and made minor changes in operation ...
LG KM900
... using a wireless network is not possible with most firmware versions, including the newest ones ... Some alternative (and older) firmware versions, like V0O_02, implement the solution for this problem, but were not developed by LG and result on device's performance decrease ... In older firmware version this would normally take more than 1 minute ...
Seagate Barracuda - ATA and SATA Models - Barracuda 7200.11
... This family has introduced many severe firmware (microcode) bugs Disks may not show and utilize all the cache ... Faulty firmware triggers this "failure", and the hard disk "disappearances" seem to be happening in November and December, 2008 and 2009, and are still going on as reported in the forums ... FreeAgent external drives have also utilized 7200.11 hard disks with SDxx firmware and people have reported failures of these drives as well ...
Firmware Hacking
... third parties create an unofficial new or modified ("aftermarket") version of firmware to provide new features or to unlock hidden functionality ... Many third-party firmware projects for wireless routers, including OpenWrt for wireless routers ... List of wireless router firmware projects Firmware that allows DVD drives to be region-free ...