Ethnologue - Language Families

Language Families

Ethnologue classification is based on Bright (1992), but has evolved with input from many individual researchers. The information on classification in the individual language articles is based on this information. However, the family trees are computer-generated and strongly dependent on consistency in the formatting of the classification data; consequently they are inconsistent and frequently show spurious groupings.

Following are the 121 language families listed in the Ethnologue language family index of the 16th edition. The first column gives the Ethnologue name for the group, followed by the location by continent and Ethnologue's count of the number of languages in the family. In addition to language families, Ethnologue lists 1 constructed language, 82 creoles, 17 pidgins, 130 Deaf sign languages, 23 mixed languages, 50 language isolates, and 73 unclassified languages.

Family Continent Count
Afroasiatic Africa/Asia 374
Alacalufan South America 2
Algic North America 44
Altaic Europe/Asia 66
Amto–Musan Australasia 2
Andamanese Asia 13
Arafundi Australasia 3
Arai–Kwomtari Australasia 10
Arauan South America 5
Araucanian South America 2
Arawakan South America 59
Arutani–Sape South America 2
Australian Australasia 264
Austro-Asiatic Asia 169
Austronesian Asia/Australasia 1257
Aymaran South America 3
Barbacoan South America 7
Basque Europe 1
Bayono–Awbono Australasia 2
Border Australasia 15
Caddoan North America 5
Cahuapanan South America 2
Carib South America 31
Central Solomons Australasia 4
Chapacura-Wanham South America 5
Chibchan South America 21
Chimakuan North America 1
Choco South America 12
Chon South America 2
Chukotko-Kamchatkan Asia 5
Chumash North America 7
Coahuiltecan North America 1
Dravidian Asia 85
East Bird's Head – Sentani Australasia 8
East Geelvink Bay Australasia 11
East New Britain Australasia 7
Eastern Trans-Fly Australasia 4
Eskimo–Aleut North America 11
Guahiban South America 5
Gulf North America 4
Harakmbet South America 2
Hibito–Cholon South America 2
Hmong–Mien Asia 38
Hokan North America 23
Huavean North America 4
Indo-European Europe/Asia 439
Iroquoian North America 9
Japonic Asia 12
Jivaroan South America 4
Kartvelian Asia 5
Katukinan South America 3
Kaure Australasia 4
Keres North America 2
Khoisan Africa 27
Kiowa–Tanoan North America 6
Lakes Plain Australasia 20
Left May Australasia 2
Lower Mamberamo Australasia 2
Lule–Vilela South America 1
Macro-Ge South America 32
Mairasi Australasia 3
Maku South America 6
Mascoian South America 5
Mataco–Guaicuru South America 12
Mayan North America 69
Maybrat Australasia 2
Misumalpan North America 4
Mixe–Zoque North America 17
Mongol-Langam Australasia 3
Mura South America 1
Muskogean North America 6
Na-Dené North America 46
Nambiquaran South America 7
Niger–Congo Africa 1532
Nilo-Saharan Africa 205
Nimboran Australasia 5
North Bougainville Australasia 4
North Brazil South America 1
North Caucasian Europe/Asia 34
Oto-Manguean North America 177
Panoan South America 28
Pauwasi Australasia 5
Peba–Yaguan South America 2
Penutian North America 33
Piawi Australasia 2
Quechuan South America 46
Ramu – Lower Sepik Australasia 32
Salishan North America 26
Salivan South America 3
Senagi Australasia 2
Sepik Australasia 56
Sino-Tibetan Asia 449
Siouan North America 17
Sko Australasia 7
Somahai Australasia 2
South Bougainville Australasia 9
South-Central Papuan Australasia 22
Tacanan South America 6
Tai–Kadai Asia 92
Tarascan North America 2
Tequistlatecan North America 2
Tor–Kwerba Australasia 24
Torricelli Australasia 56
Totonacan North America 12
Trans–New Guinea Australasia 477
Tucanoan South America 25
Tupi South America 76
Uralic Europe/Asia 37
Uru–Chipaya South America 2
Uto-Aztecan North America 61
Wakashan North America 5
West Papuan Australasia 23
Witotoan South America 6
Yanomam South America 4
Yele – West New Britain Australasia 3
Yeniseian Asia 2
Yuat Australasia 6
Yukaghir Asia 2
Yuki–Wappo North America 2
Zamucoan South America 2
Zaparoan South America 7

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Other articles related to "language families, language, languages, families":

Languages Of Uttar Pradesh - Language Families
... The dominant language family of Uttar Pradesh is Indo-Aryan, with the two major zones represented being Central and Eastern ... to the Eastern zone of Indo-Aryan, the rest of the languages belong to the Central zone ...
Linguistic Diversity In Space And Time
... Nichols selects a sample of the world's languages (one per stock) and tabulates typological characteristics such as Head-marking vs ... or absence of non-finite verbs (infinitives or verbal nouns) for each language, using this data to discover regional patterns in the distribution of these features ... One pattern is spread zones (geographical areas where a language family has spread widely, often repeated with several language families in sequence, like Indo-European and later Turkic languages in ...
Dené–Yeniseian Languages - Early Work
... researchers in historical linguistics have long sought to link the various known language families around the world into macrofamilies ... The putative relationship between Na-Dené and Yeniseian families was first proposed by Alfredo Trombetti in 1923 ... has been typological in particular, both families have a complex agglutinative prefixing verb structure, which differs from most of the other languages in Asia ...
Urheimat - Language Families Predominantly Found in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Oceania - Other Groups
... The only language isolates or language families predominantly spoken in Southeast Asia, East Asia and Oceania that do not belong to one of the language families above are the indigenous ... between indigenous Papuan and Australian aboriginal languages and those of Asia, Africa, the Americas or any other part of the world ... Indeed, no linguistic connection has been established between the indigenous languages of Melanesia and the indigenous languages of the Aboriginal Australians ...
Urheimat - Implications of Current Research
... some idea about the time depth of these languages ... For example, the Urheimats in which the proto-languages of the subfamilies are the Indo-European language family necessarily arose more recently than the Proto-Indo-European language family ... Similarly, a language superfamily's proto-language must have been spoken in an Urheimat not more recent than the time depth of the oldest language in the language family ...

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