Ethnic Groups in Europe By Country - Linguistic Classifications

Linguistic Classifications

Further information: Languages of Europe

Of the total population of Europe of some 730 million (as of 2005), over 80% or some 600 million fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages, viz., Slavic, Latin (Romance) and Germanic. The largest groups that do not fall within either of these, or the so-called separate groups, are the Greeks and Armenians (about 12 million each) and the Albanians (about 8 million). Beside the Indo-European languages there are two other major language families on the European continent: Turkic languages and Uralic languages. The Semitic languages that dominate the coast of the northern Africa as well as the Near East are preserved on the Malta islands, a Mediterranean archipelago. The Basque language is a linguistic isolate unrelated to any other languages inside or outside of Europe.

Family Branch People Sub-groups and minority languages approx. number (millions) notes
Indo-European Indo-European **641
Indo-Europeans Slavic Europe *235
Indo-Europeans Slavic, East Russians Pomors, Cossacks 95 82 in European Russia, 8.3 in Ukraine, 0.7 in Belarus, 1 in the Baltic States, 0.3 in Moldova and Transnistria; up to 0.5 in the Russian communities throughout the EU, especially in Germany
Indo-Europeans Slavic, East Ukrainians Rusyns, Boykos, Hutsuls, Lemkos, Poleszuks 41 37.5 million in Ukraine; 2 million in European Russia
Indo-Europeans Slavic, West Poles 38
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Bulgarians Pomaks 012 Total speakers worldwide
Indo-Europeans Slavic, West Czechs 11
Indo-Europeans Slavic, East Belarusians 10
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Serbs 010.5
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Croats Bunjevci, Šokci 08.0
Indo-Europeans Slavic, West Slovaks 05
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Bosniaks 02.3
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Slovenes 02
Indo-Europeans Slavic, West Silesians 01.9
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Macedonians Torbeš 01.6
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Montenegrins 0.6
Indo-Europeans Slavic, West Kashubs 0.5
Indo-Europeans Slavic, West Sorbs 0.06
Indo-Europeans Latin (Romance) Europe *190
Indo-Europeans Latin, Western Francophonie French, Walloons, Romands, Provencals, Occitans, Aranese 72
Indo-Europeans Latin Italians Catalan, Corsican, Friulan, Gallo-Italic, Sardinian, Italo-Dalmatian as Sicilian 59
Indo-Europeans Latin, Western Spaniards Castilians; non-Castilian ethno-linguistic groups: Andalusians, Asturians, Aragonese, Galicians, Catalans 40
Indo-Europeans Latin, Eastern Romanians (Vlachs) Daco-Romanians, Moldovans, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, Aromanians, Morlachs, Moravian Vlachs 24-26
Indo-Europeans Latin, Western Portuguese 12
Indo-Europeans Latin, Western Rhaeto-Romanics Romansh, Friulians, Ladins 0.6
Indo-Europeans Latin, Western Gibraltarians 0.03 (Speak English mainly as first language) Also summed under White British
Indo-Europeans Germanic Europe *180
Indo-Europeans Germanic, West, Continental German-speaking Europe Germans, Austrians, Alemannic Swiss, Luxembourgers, Alsatians, Lorrainers, South Tyroleans, German-speaking Belgians, North Schleswigers 89
Indo-Europeans Germanic, West, North Sea English 45 also subsumed under British or White British.
Indo-Europeans Germanic, West, Continental Dutch people Netherlandic, Flemish people 23
Indo-Europeans Germanic, North Scandinavians Norwegians, Swedes, Finland Swedes, Gotlanders, Danes, Faroese, Icelanders 22
Indo-Europeans Germanic, West, North Sea Frisians 00.5
Indo-Europeans Indo-Iranian 05
Indo-Europeans Indo-Aryan Romani people 04
Indo-Europeans Iranian Ossetians 0.6
Indo-Europeans Iranian Tats 0.02
Indo-Europeans Celtic Europe *002-22 approx. 2 million speakers of Celtic languages, but depending on the definition, some 20 million may be considered "Celtic"
Indo-Europeans Celtic, Goidelic Irish Gaeltacht 06 All but 10 - 20,000 speak English as a first language. Some living in Northern Ireland can also subsumed under British or White British.
Indo-Europeans Celtic, Goidelic Scots Gàidhealtachd 06 also subsumed under British or White British.
Indo-Europeans Celtic, Brythonic Welsh 03 UK, does not include Welsh in USA and elsewhere, also subsumed under British or White British.
Indo-Europeans Celtic, Brythonic Bretons 04.3 Bretagne and Loire-Atlantique provinces of France, does not include Bretons in Canada and elsewhere, also subsumed under French.
Indo-Europeans Celtic, Brythonic Cornish 00.5 UK, does not include Cornish in Australia and elsewhere, also subsumed under British or White British.
Indo-Europeans Celtic, Goidelic Manx 0.04 also subsumed under British or White British.
Indo-Europeans Greek Greeks Pontic Greeks 13 Total speakers worldwide
Indo-Europeans Armenian Armenians Eastern Armenian, Western Armenian, Classical Armenian (Grapar) 6-10 million Total speakers worldwide, Armenian Diaspora + Armenians in Armenia
Indo-Europeans Albanian Albanians 07.6 Total speakers worldwide
Indo-Europeans Baltic 04.5
Indo-Europeans Lithuanians Samogitians, Prussian Lithuanians 03.1
Indo-Europeans Latvians Latgalians, Kursenieki 01.4
Turkic Turkic *035
Turkic peoples Turkic, Oghuz Turks Chepni, Yorouks, Bulgarian Turks, Turks of Western Thrace 9 (excluding Turkey)
19 (including European Turkey)
approx. 9 million (not including Turkey), 10 million in Eastern Thrace (European Turkey); overall there is a total of 55-60 million Turks in Turkey. (see Turks in Europe)
Turkic peoples Turkic, Oghuz Azerbaijanis 9.16 in European Azerbaijan only
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kipchak Kazakhs 1 in European Kazakhstan only
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kipchak Volga Tatars 4.5 in European Russia only
Turkic peoples Turkic, Oghur Chuvash 01.5 in European Russia only
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kipchak Bashkirs 01.4 in European Russia only
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kipchak Kumyks 00.4
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kipchak Karachay-Balkars Karachays, Balkars 00.3
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kipchak / Oghuz Crimeans Tat Tatars, Yaliboyu Tatars, Noğay Tatars 0.25
Turkic peoples Turkic, Oghuz Gagauz 0.15
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kipchak Nogais 0.09
Finno-Ugric Finno-Ugric *025.5
Finno-Ugric peoples Ugric Hungarians Hungarians, Székelys, Csangos 13.5
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Finno-Lappic Finns Karelians, Sweden Finns, Ingrian Finns, Kven people 06
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Finno-Lappic Estonians Setos, Võros 01
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Volgaic Mordvins Erzya/Shoksha, Moksha, Teryukhan, Qaratay 0.85
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Permic Udmurts 0.7
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Volgaic Mari 0.6
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Permic Komi Komi-Izhemtsy, Komi-Permyaks 0.4
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Finno-Lappic Sami 0.1
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Finno-Lappic Veps 0.008
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Finno-Lappic Izhorians 0.001
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Finno-Lappic Livonians 0.0001
Northern Caucasian Caucasian *05 depends on what part of the Caucasus is considered European, see below.
Caucasian Northeast Caucasian Chechens 1.3
Caucasian Northeast Caucasian Avars 0.8
Caucasian Northeast Caucasian Dargin 0.5
Caucasian Northwest Caucasian Kabards 0.5
Caucasian Northeast Caucasian Lezgins 0.4
Caucasian Northeast Caucasian Ingush 0.4
Caucasian Northwest Caucasian Adyghes 0.15
Caucasian Northwest Caucasian Cherkesses 0.06
Caucasian Northwest Caucasian Lak 0.15
Caucasian Northwest Caucasian Tabasarans 0.13
Caucasian Northeast Caucasian Rutuls 0.03
Caucasian Northeast Caucasian Tsakhur people 0.01
Semitic Semitic 2
Semitic Semitic, Hebrew Jews 1.3 also subsumed under various "Other", see below.
Semitic Semitic, Maltese Maltese 0.4
Basque Basque Basques 02.0
Mongolic Mongolic Kalmyks 0.17

Europe has a population of about 2 million ethnic Jews (mostly also counted as part of the ethno-linguistic group of their respective home countries):

  • Ashkenazi Jews (about 1.4 million, mostly German and French).
  • Sephardi Jews (about 0.3 million, mostly French and Italian).
  • Mizrahi Jews (about 0.3 million, mostly French).
  • Italian Jews (some 50,000, mostly Italian).
  • Romaniotes (some 6,000, mostly Greek).
  • Karaites (less than 4,000 in Poland and Lithuania).

Depending on what parts of the South Caucasus are considered part of Europe, various peoples of the Caucasus may also be considered "European peoples":

  • Abkhazians: approx. 100,000
  • Armenians: approx. 4.6 -6.3 million
  • Georgians: approx. 4 million
  • Kabardians, Cherkesses and Adyghes: approx. 600,000
  • Nokhches (Chechens and Ingushes): approx. 1.8 million
  • Ossetians: approx. 600,000
  • Peoples of the Mountain Dagestan (Avars, Dargins, Lezgins, Laks etc.): approx. 2 million

Read more about this topic:  Ethnic Groups In Europe By Country

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