Elongation Factor

Elongation factors are a set of proteins that are used in protein synthesis in the cell. In the ribosome, they facilitate translational elongation, from the formation of the first peptide bond to the formation of the last one.

Elongation is the most rapid step in translation:

  • in prokaryotes it proceeds at a rate of 15 to 20 amino acids added per second (about 60 nucleotides per second)
  • in eukaryotes the rate is about two amino acids per second.

Elongation factors play a role in orchestrating the events of this process, and in ensuring the 99.99% accuracy of translation at this speed.

Elongation factors are also a target for pathogens. Corynebacterium diphtheriae produces a toxin that alters protein function in the host by inactivating elongation factor (EF-2). This causes pharyngitis and 'pseudomembrane' in the throat.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa's exotoxin A also inhibits EF-2.

Other articles related to "elongation factor, elongation factors, factor":

EF-Ts
... EF-Ts (elongation factor thermo stable) is one of the prokaryotic elongation factors ... EF-Ts serves as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu (elongation factor thermo unstable), catalyzing the release of guanosine diphosphate from EF-Tu ... prokaryotic, eukaryotic) Ribosomal proteins Initiation factor Prokaryotic PIF-1 · PIF-2 · PIF-3 Archaeal aIF1 · aIF2 · aIF5 · aIF6 Eukaryotic eIF1 (EIF1AX, AY, 1B) eIF5 (EIF5A, A2, B) eIF6 (EIF6 ...
Cyclin T1
... binding Cellular component • nucleus • nucleoplasm • nucleolus • positive transcription elongation factor complex b Biological process • regulation of cyclin-depende ... to be a major subunit of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb ... The kinase complex containing this cyclin and the elongation factor can interact with, and act as a cofactor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein, and was shown ...

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