Gene Structure and Regulation
CYR61 is located at human chromosome 1p22.3, whereas the mouse Cyr61 gene is located at chromosome 3, 72.9cM. The mouse CYR61 coding region spans ~3.2 Kb, containing 5 exons interspaced with 4 introns. The first exon encodes 5’-UTR sequence and the first several amino acids in the secretory signal peptide. The remaining four exons each encode a distinct CCN1 domain. The 5th exon also contains the 3’-UTR sequences, which has 5 copies of AU-rich elements that confers a short mRNA half life, and a mir-155 target site. The CYR61 promoter is a TATA box containing promoter, with binding sites for many transcription factors including AP1, ATF, E2F, HNF3b, NF1, NFκB, SP1, and SRF, and 2 poly(CA) stretches that may form Z-DNA structure. Transcriptional activation of CYR61 is exquisitely sensitive to a wide range of environmental perturbations, including stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), growth hormone, the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), cAMP, vitamin D3, estrogen and tamoxifen, angiotensin II, hypoxia, UV light, and mechanical stretch.
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