Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.
Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries, petrochemical and other chemical plants, thermal power stations and HVAC systems for cooling buildings.
Cooling towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures (as in the adjacent image) that can be up to 200 metres tall and 100 metres in diameter, or rectangular structures (as in Image 3) that can be over 40 metres tall and 80 metres long. The hyperboloid cooling towers are often associated with nuclear power plants, although they are also used to some extent in some large chemical and other industrial plants. Although these large towers are very prominent, the vast majority of cooling towers are much smaller, including many units installed on or near buildings to discharge heat from air conditioning.
Read more about Cooling Tower: History, Heat Transfer Methods, Air Flow Generation Methods, Wet Cooling Tower Material Balance, Legionnaires' Disease, Terminology, Fog Production, Use As A Flue-gas Stack, Operation in Freezing Weather, Fire Hazard, Structural Stability
... save energy in buildings by using cool outside air as a means of cooling the indoor space ... this portion of the air-side economizer control scheme is called free cooling ... economizers use water cooled by a wet cooling tower or a dry cooler (also called fluid cooler) to cool buildings without operating a chiller ...
... Being very large structures, cooling towers are susceptible to wind damage, and several spectacular failures have occurred in the past ... major structural failure, when three of the cooling towers collapsed owing to vibrations in 85 mph (137 km/h) winds ... withstand higher wind speeds, the shape of the cooling towers caused westerly winds to be funnelled into the towers themselves, creating a vortex ...
... This cooling water does not mix with other liquid process streams while in contact with the condensers ... Because Unit 2 has been out of service since 1983, the actual demand for cooling water by Northside Generating Station at full load since that time has been ... During that time, the demand for cooling water was approximately 827 Mgd (574,000 US gallons (2,170 m3) per minute) 24.5% for Unit 1, 24.5% for Unit 2, and 51% for Unit 3 ...
... Assuming that the system can utilize free cooling, there are three ways to use free cooling Strainer Cycle - The cooling tower water can be directly linked ... If the cooling tower is open then a strainer is required to eliminate any debris that could accumulate within the tower ... exchanger - A heat exchanger, will transfer heat directly from the chilled water loop to the cooling tower loop ...
... The cooling tower at Callaway is 553 feet (169 m) tall, 77 feet shorter than the St Louis Gateway Arch ... sent to the Missouri River as "blowdown" to flush solids from the cooling tower basin ... The temperature of the water going into the cooling tower is 125 °F (52 °C), and the tower cools it to 95 °F (35 °C) ...
Famous quotes containing the words tower and/or cooling:
“The tower nearest the water gets the moonlight first.”
“So God stepped over to the edge of the world
And He spat out the seven seas;
He batted His eyes, and the lightnings flashed;
He clapped His hands, and the thunders rolled;
And the waters above the earth came down,
The cooling waters came down.”
—James Weldon Johnson (18711938)