Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction (U.S.)

Collateral Consequences Of Criminal Conviction (U.S.)

Collateral consequences of criminal conviction, commonly referred to as the "Four C's" are the additional civil state penalties, mandated by statute, that attach to criminal convictions. They are not part of the direct consequences of criminal conviction, such as incarceration, fines, and/or probation. They are the further civil actions by the state that are triggered as a consequence of the conviction. In general, all the states impose these actions. They include loss or restriction of a professional license, ineligibility for public funds including welfare benefits and student loans, loss of voting rights, ineligibility for jury duty, and deportation for immigrants, including those who, while not U.S. citizens, hold permanent resident status.

In all jurisdictions throughout the U.S., judges are not obligated to warn of these collateral consequences upon a finding of guilt by trial, or prior to an admission of guilt by plea agreement, except as regards deportation. Deportation has been made an exception by the Supreme Court in Padilla v. Commonwealth of Kentucky.

Read more about Collateral Consequences Of Criminal Conviction (U.S.):  Introduction, Efforts To Include Collateral Consequences in Sentencing

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