Chemical Bond - Strong Chemical Bonds

Strong Chemical Bonds

Typical bond lengths in pm
and bond energies in kJ/mol.
<br />
Bond Length
(pm)
Energy
(kJ/mol)
H — Hydrogen
H–H 74 436
H–O 96 366
H–F 92 568
H–Cl 127 432
C — Carbon
C–H 109 413
C–C 154 348
C–C= 151
=C–C≡ 147
=C–C= 148
C=C 134 614
C≡C 120 839
C–N 147 308
C–O 143 360
C–F 134 488
C–Cl 177 330
N — Nitrogen
N–H 101 391
N–N 145 170
N≡N 110 945
O — Oxygen
O–O 148 145
O=O 121 498
F, Cl, Br, I — Halogens
F–F 142 158
Cl–Cl 199 243
Br–H 141 366
Br–Br 228 193
I–H 161 298
I–I 267 151

Strong chemical bonds are the intramolecular forces which hold atoms together in molecules. A strong chemical bond is formed from the transfer or sharing of electrons between atomic centers and relies on the electrostatic attraction between the protons in nuclei and the electrons in the orbitals. Although these bonds typically involve the transfer of integer numbers of electrons (this is the bond order, which represents one transferred electron or two shared electrons), some systems can have intermediate numbers of bonds. An example of this is the organic molecule benzene, where the bond order is 1.5 for each carbon atom, meaning that it has 1.5 bonds (shares three electrons) with each one of its two neighbors.

The types of strong bond differ due to the difference in electronegativity of the constituent elements. A large difference in electronegativity leads to more polar (ionic) character in the bond.

Read more about this topic:  Chemical Bond

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