The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing (except virus, which consists only from DNA/RNA covered by protein and lipids), and is often called the building block of life. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including most bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). Humans contain about 10 trillion (1013) cells. Most plant and animal cells are between 1 and 100 µm and therefore are visible only under the microscope.
The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that all cells come from preexisting cells, that vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.
The word cell comes from the Latin cella, meaning "small room". The descriptive term for the smallest living biological structure was coined by Robert Hooke in a book he published in 1665 when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the small rooms monks lived in.
Other articles related to "cells, cell":
1665 Robert Hooke discovers cellsin cork, then in living plant tissue using an early compound microscope ... and Matthias Jakob Schleiden elucidate the principle that plants and animals are made of cells concluding that cellsare a common unit of structure and development, and thus founding the cell. 1855 Rudolf Virchow states that cellsalways emerge from celldivisions (omnis cellula ex cellula) ...
Famous quotes containing the word cell:
“Why inspire in us a horror of our being?... To look upon the universe as a prison cell and all men as criminals about to be executed is the idea of a fanatic.”
—Voltaire [François Marie Arouet] (16941778)