Crossover Studies, An Example of A Repeated Measures Design
A popular repeated-measures design is the crossover study. A crossover study is a longitudinal study in which subjects receive a sequence of different treatments (or exposures). While crossover studies can be observational studies, many important crossover studies are controlled experiments, which are discussed in this article. Crossover designs are common for experiments in many scientific disciplines, for example psychology, education, pharmaceutical science, and health-care, especially medicine.
Randomized, controlled, crossover experiments are especially important in health-care. In a randomized clinical trial, the subjects are randomly assigned treatments. When the randomized clinical trial is a repeated measures design, the subjects are randomly assigned to a sequence of treatments. A crossover clinical trial is a repeated-measures design in which each patient is randomly assigned to a sequence of treatments, including at least two treatments (of which one "treatment" may be a standard treatment or a placebo): Thus each patient crosses over from one treatment to another.
Nearly all crossover designs have "balance", which means that all subjects should receive the same number of treaments and that all subjects participate for the same number of periods. In most crossover trials, each subject receives all treatments.
However, many repeated-measures designs are not crossover studies: The longitudinal study of the sequential effects of repeated treatments need not use any "crossover", for example (Vonesh & Chinchilli; Jones & Kenward).
Read more about this topic: Carryover Effect
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