n-Butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA, NBCA), a cyanoacrylate ester, is a butyl ester of 2-cyano-2-propenoic acid. It is a clear colorless liquid with a sharp, irritating odor. It is insoluble in water. Its chief use is as the main component of medical cyanoacrylate glues. It can be encountered under various trade names, e.g. PeriAcryl, GluStitch, Xoin, Gesika, VetGlu, Vetbond, LiquiVet, Indermil, LiquiBand, Histoacryl, and others.
n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate or butyl cyanoacrylate is also known as Enbucrilate.
In medical and veterinary applications, n-butyl cyanoacrylate, isobutyl cyanoacrylate, and octyl cyanoacrylate are commonly used. They are bacteriostatic and their use is usually painless. Butyl esters provide stronger bond, but are rigid. Octyl ester, while providing weaker bond, are more flexible. n-Butyl cyanoacrylate is also used for embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations before their surgical treatment.
It is soluble in acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, nitromethane, and methylene chloride.
Butyl cyanoacrylate (in monomer form) polymerizes rapidly in presence of ionic substances like moisture, blood or tissue fluids.
Butyl cyanoacrylate has unique properties compared to other cyanoacrylates like octyl cyanoacryalte or iso amyl cyanoacrylate. Polymerized form has excellent tensile strength and is very effective in closing surgical or wound incisions.
The closure of the wound or cut is quick (about 30 to 45 seconds) and the product has inherently some valuable bacteriostatic properties. The cosmetic outcome of the closure is comparable or generally better than an equivalent suture substitute with least amount of scarring visible after three to six months.
Also important is the in the body degradation properties of polymerized butyl cyanoacrylate. This property of butyl cyanaocrylate has made it a very useful polymer to create various nano particles for delivery of drugs into the body with sustained release profiles.
Heating to higher temperatures causes pyrolysis and depolymerization of the cured glue, producing gaseous products strongly irritant to lungs and eyes.