Butyl

In organic chemistry, butyl is a four-carbon alkyl radical or substituent group with general chemical formula -C4H9, derived from either of the two isomers of butane.

The isomer n-butane can connect either at one of the two terminal carbon atoms or at one of the two internal carbon atoms, giving rise to two "-butyl" groups:

  • Normal butyl or n-Butyl: CH3–CH2–CH2–CH2– (fully systematic name: butyl)
  • Secondary butyl or sec-Butyl: CH3–CH2–CH(CH3)– (fully systematic name: 1-methylpropyl)

The second, branched isomer of butane, isobutyl, can connect either at one of the three terminal carbons or at the central carbon, giving rise to another two groups:

  • Isobutyl: (CH3)2CH–CH2– (fully systematic name: 2-methylpropyl)
  • Tertiary butyl, tert-Butyl or t-butyl: (CH3)3C– (fully systematic name: 1,1-dimethylethyl)

Read more about Butyl:  Nomenclature, Some Examples, Etymology, Tert-butyl Effect

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C4mim
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... The tert-butyl substituent is very bulky and used in chemistry for kinetic stabilisation together with other bulky groups such as the related trimethylsilyl group ... The effect that the t-butyl group exerts on the progress of a chemical reaction is called the tert-butyl effect ... is illustrated in the Diels-Alder reaction below, where the tert-butyl substituent causes a reaction rate acceleration by a factor of 240 compared to hydrogen as the ...