Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC)

Battle Of Chaeronea (338 BC)

Rise of Macedon
  • Methone (battle) (359 BC)
  • Paionia (358 BC)
  • 1st Illyria (358 BC)
  • Amphipolis (357 BC)
  • Pydna (356 BC)
  • Potidea (356 BC)
  • 2nd Illyria (356 BC)
  • Krinides (356 BC)
  • 1st Thrace (355 BC)
  • Maroneia and Abdera (355* BC)
  • Methone (siege) (355–354* BC)
  • Thessaly (354* BC)
  • Pagasae (353* BC)
  • Crocus Field (353* BC)
  • 2nd Thrace (353 BC)
  • 3rd Thrace (352 BC)
  • Chalkidiki (349–348 BC)
  • 4th Thrace (346 BC)
  • 3rd Illyria (345 BC)
  • 5th Thrace (342–340 BC)
  • Perinthos (340 BC)* Byzantion (340 BC)
  • Scythia (339 BC)* Chaeronea (338 BC)

The Battle of Chaeronea (Greek: Μάχη της Χαιρώνειας) was fought in 338 BC, near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia, between the forces of Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes. The battle was the culmination of Philip's campaign in Greece (339–338 BC) and resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians.

Philip had brought peace to a war-torn Greece in 346 BC, by ending the Third Sacred War, and concluding his ten-year conflict with Athens for supremacy in the north Aegean, by making a separate peace. Philip's much expanded kingdom, powerful army and plentiful resources now made him the de facto "leader of Greece". To many of the fiercely independent Greek city-states, Philip's power after 346 BC was perceived as a threat to their liberty, especially in Athens, where the politician Demosthenes led efforts to break away from Philip's influence. When, in 340 BC, Athens formed an alliance with a city Philip was then besieging, he finally lost patience, and declared war on the Attic state. In summer 339 BC, Philip therefore led his army into Greece, prompting the formation of an alliance of Greek states opposed to him, led by Athens and Thebes.

After several months of stalemate, Philip finally advanced into Boeotia in an attempt to march on Thebes and Athens. Opposing him, and blocking the road near Chaeronea, was the allied Greek army, similar in size and occupying a strong position. Details of the ensuing battle are scarce, but after a long fight the Macedonians crushed both flanks of the allied line, which then dissolved into a rout.

The battle has been described as one of the most decisive of the Ancient World. The forces of Athens and Thebes were destroyed, and continued resistance was impossible; the war therefore came to an abrupt end. Philip was able to impose a settlement upon Greece, which all states accepted, with the exception of Sparta. The League of Corinth, formed as a result, made all participants allies of Macedon and each other, with Philip as the guarantor of the peace. In turn, Philip was voted as strategos (general) for a pan-Hellenic war against the Persian Empire, which he had long planned. However, before he was able to take charge of the campaign, Philip was assassinated, and the kingdom of Macedon and responsibility for the war with Persia passed instead to his son Alexander.

Read more about Battle Of Chaeronea (338 BC):  Background, Prelude, Opposing Forces, Strategic and Tactical Considerations, Battle, Aftermath

Other related articles:

Battle Of Chaeronea (338 BC) - Aftermath
... Cawkwell suggests that this was one of the most decisive battles in ancient history ... Since there was now no army which could prevent Philip's advance, the war effectively ended ...
Demosthanes - Career - Confrontation With Philip II - Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC)
... For more details on this topic, see Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) ... In 341 BC Demosthenes was sent to Byzantium, where he sought to renew its alliance with Athens ...

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