Babylonia

Babylonia was an ancient Semitic nation state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq). It emerged as an independent state in ca. 1894 BC, the city of Babylon being its capital. Babylonia became the major power in the region after Hammurabi (fl. ca. 1792- 1752 BC middle chronology, or ca. 1696 – 1654 BC, short chronology) created an empire out of the territories of the former Akkadian Empire.

Babylonia retained the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use (the language of its native populace), despite its Amorite founders and Kassite successors not being native Akkadians. It retained the Sumerian language for religious use, but by the time Babylon was founded this was no longer a spoken language. The earlier Akkadian and Sumerian traditions played a major role in Babylonian (and Assyrian) culture, and the region would remain an important cultural center, even under protracted periods of outside rule.

The earliest mention of the city of Babylon can be found in a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad (2334- 2279 BC), dating back to the 23rd century BC. Babylon was merely a religious and cultural centre at this point and not an independent state; like the rest of Mesopotamia, it was subject to the Akkadian Empire which united all the Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. After the collapse of the Akkadian empire, the south Mesopotamian region was dominated by the Gutians for a few decades before the rise of the Sumerian third dynasty of Ur, which encompassed the whole of Mesopotamia, including Babylon.

Following the collapse of this "Ur-III" dynasty at the hands of the Elamites (2002 BC traditional, 1940 BC short), the Amorites, another Semitic people, gradually gained control over most of southern Mesopotamia, where they formed a series of small kingdoms, while the Assyrians reasserted their independence in the north. During the first centuries of what is called the "Amorite period", the most powerful city states in the south were Isin and Larsa, although Shamshi-Adad I usurped the throne of Assyria and formed a short lived empire in the north. Another of these Amorite dynasties founded the city-state of Babylon, which would ultimately take over the others and form the short-lived first Babylonian empire, also called the Old Babylonian Period.

Read more about BabyloniaBabylonian Culture, Legacy

Other articles related to "babylonia":

History - Old Babylonian Period
... Hammurabi is famous for codifying the laws of Babylonia into the Code of Hammurabi that has had a lasting influence on legal thought ... of Babylon continued to be the capital of the region known as Babylonia ... quickly dissolved after his death, although the Amorite dynasty remained in power in a much reduced Babylonia until 1595 BC when they were overthrown by the ...
Bruriah - Death/Suicide
... mentions that in the middle of his life, Rabbi Meir fled to Babylonia, and mentions two possible motivations ... exiled himself from Israel out of shame and fled to Babylonia ... to him, Rabbi Meir and Bruriah had to flee to Babylonia after the Romans executed her father, sold her mother to slavery and her sister to a brothel (to be rescued ...
Surugatoxin
... is a type of venom found in the mid-gut digestive gland of the Japanese ivory mollusk Babylonia japonica, a carnivorous gastropod ... functionally related neosurugatoxin, also derived from Babylonia japonica, is an even more potent nAChR antagonist than SGTX ... a structurally similar compound derived from the same mollusk, Babylonia japonica ...
Babylonia - Legacy
... Babylonia, and particularly its capital city Babylon, has long held a place in Abrahamic religions as a symbol of excess and dissolute power ...
Tanna Devei Eliyahu - Composed in The Tenth Century
... Bacher, Oppenheim, and Hochmuth) suppose Babylonia or Palestine, Güdemann is of the opinion that the work was written in Italy, or at least that its author must have been an ... Furthermore, the fact that he knew nothing of Babylonia beyond its name shows that he could not have been a native of that region ... and only apparently sound and he accordingly assigns the origin of the work "eo ipso" to Babylonia ...