Awngi Language - Phonology - Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palato-velar Uvular
Plosive p t k q
b d ɡ ɡʷ ɢ ɢʷ
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ
d͡z d͡ʒ
Fricative f s ʃ
Post-stopped fricative s͡t ʃ͡t
Nasal m n ŋ ŋʷ
Flap r
Approximant w l j
  • Palatal and velar together in Awngi form only one place of articulation, which is called palato-velar.
  • Post-stopped fricatives are assumed to be single segments in Awngi for phonotactic reasons. Other linguists (e.g. Richard Wiese for German) have called such sounds suffricates.
  • /h/ is found word-initially in loanwords in free variation with Zero.
  • /r/ does not occur word-initially. It is pronounced as a flap when not geminate.
  • Between vowels, /b/ is pronounced as a voiced bilabial fricative .
  • /d/ is pronounced retracted, with slight retroflexion.
  • /ɢ/ and /ɢʷ/ are usually pronounced as voiced uvular fricatives and .
  • Although /d͡z/ and /d͡ʒ/ are phonetically realized as fricatives and in many environments, they are very much the voiced counterparts of the voiceless affricates with respect to phonological rules.
  • The labialization contrast in the palato-velar and uvular consonants is found only before the vowels /i, e, a/ and word-finally.

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