Atomic Orbital

An atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atom's nucleus. The term may also refer to the physical region where the electron can be calculated to be, as defined by the particular mathematical form of the orbital.

Atomic orbitals are typically categorized by n, l, and m quantum numbers, which correspond to the electron's energy, angular momentum, and an angular momentum vector component, respectively. Each orbital is defined by a different set of quantum numbers (n, l, and m), and contains a maximum of two electrons each with their own spin quantum number. The simple names s orbital, p orbital, d orbital and f orbital refer to orbitals with angular momentum quantum number l = 0, 1, 2 and 3 respectively. These names indicate the orbital shape and are used to describe the electron configurations. They are derived from the characteristics of their spectroscopic lines: sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental, the rest being named in alphabetical order (omitting j).

Atomic orbitals are the basic building blocks of the atomic orbital model (alternatively known as the electron cloud or wave mechanics model), a modern framework for visualizing the microscopic behavior of electrons in matter. In this model the electron cloud of a multi-electron atom may be seen as being built up (in approximation) in an electron configuration that is a product of simpler hydrogen-like atomic orbitals. The repeating periodicity of the blocks of 2, 6, 10, and 14 elements within sections of the periodic table arises naturally from the total number of electrons which occupy a complete set of s, p, d and f atomic orbitals, respectively.

Read more about Atomic OrbitalIntroduction, History, Orbital Names, Hydrogen-like Orbitals, Quantum Numbers, Shapes of Orbitals, Orbital Energy, Electron Placement and The Periodic Table, Transitions Between Orbitals

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Molecular Orbital Diagram - Examples For More Complex Molecules - Carbon Dioxide MO Diagram
... For convention, blue atomic orbital lobes are positive phases, red atomic orbitals are negative phases, with respect to the wave function from the solution of the Schrödinger. 2p (−15.9 eV)) energies associated with the atomic orbitals are in proximity whereas the oxygen 2s energy (−32.4 eV) is different ... and each oxygen atom will have a 2s atomic orbital and a 2p atomic orbital, where the p orbital is divided into px, py, and pz ...
Atomic Orbital - Transitions Between Orbitals
... When applied to atomic orbitals, this means that each state has a specific energy, and that if an electron is to move between states, the energy difference is also very fixed ... cannot be absorbed by the electron, because the electron can only jump to one of the orbitals, it cannot jump to a state between orbitals ... The atomic orbital model thus predicts line spectra, which are observed experimentally ...

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