The armored cruiser was a type of warship of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, designed like other types of cruisers to operate as a long-range, independent warship, capable of defeating any ship apart from a battleship, and fast enough to outrun any battleships it encountered. It was distinguished from other types of cruiser by its belt armor-thick iron (or later steel) plating on much of the hull to protect the ship from shellfire from enemy guns, much like the protection method of battleships. The first armored cruiser, General-Admiral, was launched in 1873 and she combined sail and steam propulsion. By the 1890s, cruisers had abandoned sail and took on a modern appearance. The size of armored cruisers varied; the largest were as large and expensive as battleships.
For many decades naval technology had not advanced far enough for designers to produce a cruiser which combined an armored belt with the long range and high speed required to fulfill its mission; for this reason, many navies preferred to build protected cruisers in the 1880s and early 1890s. It was often possible to build cruisers which were faster and better all-round using this type of ship, which relied on a lighter armored deck to protect the vital parts of the ship; however, by the late 1880s the development of rapid-fire cannon and high-explosive shells made the reintroduction of side armor a necessity. The invention of face-hardened armor in the mid-1890s offered effective protection with less weight than previously
In 1908 the armored cruiser was supplanted by the battlecruiser which, with armament equivalent to that of a dreadnought battleship and steam turbine engines, was faster and more powerful than armored cruisers. At around the same time, the term 'light cruiser' came into use for small cruisers with armored belts. Despite the fact they were now considered second-class ships, armored cruisers were widely used in World War I. Most surviving armored cruisers from this conflict were scrapped under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, which imposed limits on warships and defined a cruiser as a ship of 10,000 tons or less carrying guns of 8-inch caliber or less—rather smaller than many of the large armored cruisers. A handful survived in one form or another until World War II.
Read more about Armored Cruiser: Background: Armor, Guns and Engines, 1870s: First Armored Cruisers, 1880s: Rise of The Protected Cruiser, 1890s: Armored Cruisers in The Pre-dreadnought Era, 1900s: Battle of Tsushima and The Battlecruiser, World War I, Post-World War I: Panzerschiffe and End, Differences Between Armored Cruisers and Heavy Cruisers
Other articles related to "armored cruisers, armored cruiser, cruiser, cruisers":
... The Tennessee-class armored cruisers were four ships built for the United States Navy between 1903 and 1906. 10-inch (254 mm) guns in twin turrets was the heaviest carried by any American armored cruiser ... The USS Maine, which had been designated an armored cruiser when laid down, had also carried four ten-inch guns, but was rerated a "second-class battleship ...
... sank at Havana on 15 February 1898, Almirante Oquendo rendezvoused there with her sister ship, armored cruiser Vizcaya ... also was neutral, and strictly enforced its neutrality by allowing only Vizcaya and armored cruiser Infanta Maria Teresa to enter port and permitting them to load only 600 tons of coal ... Cervera's flagship Infanta Maria Teresa, Vizcaya, and armored cruiser Cristobal Colon, with destroyers Furor and Pluton bringing up the rear ...
... Topeka left the West Indies on 30 March and returned to the United States upon her arrival at Charleston on the 5th ... On 15 May, the warship reported for duty at Newport, Rhode Island, and, for the next four months, participated in wireless telegraphy experiments conducted off the New England coast ...
... At 1400 hours on 31 May 1898, the battleships USS Iowa and USS Massachusetts and cruiser USS New Orleans opened fire on Cristóbal Colón and the shore fortifications at the then-great range of 7,000 yards (6,400 m ... the escape, sacrificing herself by attacking the fastest American ship, armored cruiser USS Brooklyn, allowing the rest of the squadron to avoid action and run ... following Infanta María Teresa and armored cruiser Vizcaya armored cruiser Almirante Oquendo and destroyers Furor and Plutón came along behind Cristóbal Colón ...
... The armored cruiser was not a close ancestor of heavy cruisers, even though the name sometimes suggests this ... By 1905 the armored cruiser had grown in size and power to be very close to the pre-dreadnought battleships of the day, with a displacement of around 15,000 tons ... resulted in the battlecruiser, which was initially conceived as an armored cruiser on the same scale as the dreadnought battleship ...
Famous quotes containing the word armored:
For watermelons gutted to the crust,
Mud for the mole-tide harbor, mud for mouse,
Mud for the armored Diesel fishing tubs that thud
A year and a day to wind and tide; the dust
Is on this skipping heart that shakes my house,”
—Robert Lowell (19171977)