In TCP/IP, the application layer contains all protocols and methods that fall into the realm of process-to-process communications across an Internet Protocol (IP) network. Application layer methods use the underlying transport layer protocols to establish host-to-host connections.
The Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) and the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) of computer networking each specify a group of protocols and methods identified by the name application layer.
In the OSI model, the definition of its application layer is narrower in scope, explicitly distinguishing additional functionality above the transport layer at two additional levels, the session layer and the presentation layer. OSI specifies strict modular separation of functionality at these layers and provides protocol implementations for each layer.
|Routing protocols *|
|* Not a layer. A routing protocol belongs either to application or network layer.|
|The OSI model|
|7 Application layer|
|6 Presentation layer|
|5 Session layer|
|4 Transport layer|
|3 Network layer|
|2 Data link layer|
|1 Physical layer|
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... In computer network programming, the application layer is an abstraction layer reserved for communications protocols and methods designed for process-to-process communications ... Application layer protocols use the underlying transport layer protocols to establish host-to-host connections ... model each specify a group of protocols and methods identified by the name application layer ...
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Famous quotes containing the words layer and/or application:
“This world is run by people who know how to do things. They know how things work. They are equipped. Up there, theres a layer of people who run everything. But wewere just peasants. We dont understand whats going on, and we cant do anything.”
—Doris Lessing (b. 1919)
“By an application of the theory of relativity to the taste of readers, to-day in Germany I am called a German man of science, and in England I am represented as a Swiss Jew. If I come to be regarded as a bête noire the descriptions will be reversed, and I shall become a Swiss Jew for the Germans and a German man of science for the English!”
—Albert Einstein (18791955)