AMP-activated Protein Kinase
5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis. It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans. It is expressed in a number of tissues, including the liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. The net effect of AMPK activation is stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis, inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis and lipogenesis, stimulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and muscle glucose uptake, and modulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells.
It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A), which, although being of similar nature, may have opposite effects.
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... Because the AMPK response to exercise decreases with increased training duration, many questions arise that would challenge the AMPK role with respect to biochemical adaptations to exercise and endurance training ... This is due in part to the marked increases in the biogenesis and upregulation of mitochondria, GLUT-4, UCP-3, Hexokinase II and other metabolic and mitochondrial enzymes despite decreases in AMPK activity with training ...
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