1939–1940 Winter Offensive
The 1939–40 Winter Offensive was one of the major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. This operation received mixed review from historians.
According to a western historian, the offensive was a fiasco, "destroyed what confidence Nationalist forces had left and reconfirmed their prior reluctance to seriously engage the Japanese." Nationalist war accounts have ignored and even denied it was launched, which one historian has described as a "devastating defeat" on the part of the Chinese.
However, other studies have shown that the offensive came as heavy blow to the Japanese forces, and came as a massive shock to the Japanese military command, which did not expect the Chinese forces to be able to launch an offensive operation on such a large scale.
By April 1940, the Japanese Army had successfully forced the operation to a halt. However, a Japanese counteroffensive in the northern theater failed to seize Ningxia and was defeated in Suiyuan.
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