Progressive Segmented Frame - Usage


Despite the criticism, PsF quickly became a de facto standard for high quality film-to-video transfer. One of the documented examples of PsF usage is the 2003 transfer of the film "Terminator 2" to DVD, performed by Artisan and THX. The original 24 frame/s movie was converted to PsF format and recorded to HD-D5 videotapes. This allowed for the creation of a digital master that was nearly identical to the original film, and made it possible to edit digitally at the native frame rate. The same digital master appears to be used for the 2006 Blu-ray Disc transfer of the movie.

PsF has been recognized by Recommendation ITU-R BT.709 as a legitimate way to transport progressive frames within an interlaced system. 25PsF and 30PsF rates have been added to the specification in addition to the more established 24PsF. "Fractional" frame rates, having the above values divided by 1.001, are also permitted; the resulting 23.976PsF and 29.97PsF rates are used in 60 Hz systems.

PsF became a means of initial image acquisition in professional Sony video cameras. It is employed in HDCAM and XDCAM video cameras, including the HDW-F900 CineAlta camera which was used by George Lucas for creating Star Wars, Episode 2, and by Alexander Sokurov for creating Russian Ark fully in the digital domain.

PsF is utilized in some DV, HDV and AVCHD camcorders for 25-frame/s and 30-frame/s progressive-scan recording, and can be called Progressive recording (Sony), Progressive scan mode (Sony), Frame mode (Panasonic and Canon), Digital Cinema mode (Panasonic) or Cinema mode (Canon). Consumer and many professional camcorders do not use PsF to record 24-frame/s video; instead they either record it natively in progressive form or apply 2:3 pulldown.

The operating guide for a 60 Hz ("NTSC") Sony DCR-HC96 camcorder describes the progressive recording mode as follows:

Note on the progressive recording mode

In a normal TV broadcast, the screen is divided into 2 finer fields and these are displayed in turn, every 1/60 of a second. Thus, the actual picture displayed in an instant covers only half of the apparent picture area. In progressive recording, the picture is fully displayed with all the pixels.

The booklet for the 50 Hz ("PAL") Sony DSR-PD175P camcorder describes its progressive recording mode as follows:

Progressive Scan Mode

The 25p image captured by the sensor system is recorded as an interlaced signal by dividing each frame into two fields. This enables compatibility with current editing and monitoring equipment that only accept interlaced signals, while maintaining the quality of the 25p image.

Read more about this topic:  Progressive Segmented Frame

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