Mechanical Calculator

A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, was a device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic. Most mechanical calculators were comparable in size to small desktop computers and have been rendered obsolete by the advent of the electronic calculator.

The mechanical calculator was invented in 1642 by Blaise Pascal, it was called Pascal's Calculator or Pascaline. The first commercially successful device, Thomas' arithmometer, was manufactured from 1851. The first machine with columns of keys, the comptometer, was introduced in 1887 while 10 key calculators and electric motors appeared in 1902. The use of electric motors allowed for the design of very powerful machines during the first half of the 20th century. In 1961, A full-keyboard machine, the Anita from Sumlock comptometer Ltd., became the first desktop mechanical calculator to receive an all electronic calculator engine, creating the link in between these two industries and marking the beginning of its decline. The production of mechanical calculators came to a stop in the middle of the 1970s closing an industry that had lasted for 120 years.

The calculating engines of Charles Babbage were the first automatic mechanical calculators in the world. Babbage started work on his analytical engine in 1834, "in less than two years he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer. A crucial step was the adoption of a punched card system derived from the Jacquard loom" which made it the first programmable calculator. Howard Aiken mentioned Babbage extensively when he convinced IBM to build the Harvard Mark I in 1937 ; when the machine was finished some hailed it as "Babbage's dream come true". Babbage never built his steam powered mechanical calculators but in 1855 the swede Georg Scheutz became the first of a handful of designers to succeed at building a smaller and simpler model of his difference engine for the purpose of printing mathematical tables.

Read more about Mechanical CalculatorAncient History, Operating An Odhner Calculator

Other articles related to "mechanical calculator, calculator, calculators, mechanical calculators, mechanical":

Charles Xavier Thomas
... and manufacturing the first commercially successful mechanical calculator, the Arithmometer and for founding the insurance companies "Le Soleil" and "L'aigle" which, under his leadership ... facility had built around 1,000 Arithmometers, making it the first mass produced mechanical calculator in the world, and at the time, the only mechanical calculator ...
Ryōichi Yazu - Mechanical Calculator
... It was a gear type calculator with a single cylinder and 22 gears, capable of arithmetic calculations up to 16 digits, with automatic carry and end of ... The calculator was expensive, costing 250 yen, more than ten times the monthly salary of a newspaper reporter or lower-level government official ... One of the calculators is preserved in the Kitakyūshū City Museum of Literature ...
Timeline Of Computing Hardware 2400 BC–1949 - 1642-1850
... polymath Blaise Pascal invented the mechanical calculator ... Called machine arithmétique, Pascal's calculator and eventually Pascaline, its public introduction in 1645 started the development of mechanical calculators first in Europe and then in the. 1709 Giovanni Poleni was the first to build a calculator that used a pinwheel design ...
Mechanical Calculator - Operating An Odhner Calculator
... The Odhner arithmometer was the most produced mechanical calculator ... how one operates any basic rotary calculator ... instead, you can subtract twice before adding the calculator will keep track for you ...
History Of Computing Hardware - Earliest True Hardware
150–100 BC), which are generally regarded as the earliest known mechanical analog computers. 10–70 AD) made many complex mechanical devices including automata and a programmable cart ... Other early versions of mechanical devices used to perform one or another type of calculations include the planisphere and other mechanical ...

Famous quotes containing the words calculator and/or mechanical:

    Man is a stream whose source is hidden. Our being is descending into us from we know not whence. The most exact calculator has no prescience that somewhat incalculable may not balk the very next moment. I am constrained every moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events than the will I call mine.
    Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)

    A man should have a farm or a mechanical craft for his culture. We must have a basis for our higher accomplishments, our delicate entertainments of poetry and philosophy, in the work of our hands.
    Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)