Livonian War

The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.

During the period 1558–1578, Russia dominated the region with early military successes at Dorpat (Tartu) and Narva. Russian dissolution of the Livonian Confederation brought Poland–Lithuania into the conflict while Sweden and Denmark both intervened between 1559 and 1561. Swedish Estonia was established despite constant invasion from Russia and Frederick II of Denmark bought the old Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek, which he placed under the control of his brother Magnus of Holstein. Magnus attempted to expand his Livonian holdings to establish the Russian vassal state Kingdom of Livonia, which nominally existed until Magnus' defection in 1576.

In 1576, Stefan Batory became King of Poland as well as Grand Duke of Lithuania and turned the tide of the war with his successes between 1578 and 1581, including the joint Swedish–Polish–Lithuanian offensive at the Battle of Wenden. This was followed by an extended campaign through Russia culminating in the long and difficult siege of Pskov. Under the 1582 Truce of Jam Zapolski, which ended the war between Russia and Poland–Lithuania, Russia lost all its former holdings in Livonia and Polotsk to Poland–Lithuania. The following year, Sweden and Russia signed the Truce of Plussa with Sweden gaining most of Ingria and northern Livonia while retaining the Duchy of Estonia.

Read more about Livonian War1562–1570, 1570–1577: Russian Dominance and The Kingdom of Livonia, Aftermath

Other articles related to "livonian war, war, livonian, wars":

Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars - Livonian War
... The next war may be seen as part of the Northern Seven Years' War or the larger Livonian War, as it involved most of the powers around the Baltic Sea ... Ivan IV invaded Livonia first in 1568 when the Livonian Knights sought alliance with Poland and Lithuania the Poles and Lithuanians were able to defend only southern Livonia ... took advantage of the Commonwealth internal strife (called the war against Danzig in Polish historiography), and during the reign of Stefan Batory in Polish–Lithuanian ...
Livonian War - Aftermath
... The post-war Duchy of Courland and Semigallia south of the Düna (Daugava) river experienced a period of political stability based on the 1561 Treaty of ... regarding the regained territories as the spoils of war ... Despite these measures, the Livonian population did not convert en masse, while the Livonian estates in Poland–Lithuania were alienated ...
Timeline Of Russian History - 16th Century
1507 Russo-Crimean Wars The Crimean Khanate raided the Muscovite towns of Belyov and Kozelsk. 1558 Livonian War Ivan demanded a back-breaking tribute from the Bishopric of Dorpat. 2 ... August Battle of Ergeme Ivan's army crushed the forces of the Livonian Order ...
List Of Treaties - 1500–1599
1504 Treaty of Blois Temporarily halts the Italian Wars. 1524 Treaty of Malmö Ends the Swedish War of Liberation ... Treaty of Amasya Ends the war between Ottoman Turkey and Safavid Persia ...
History Of Estonia - Division of Estonia in The Livonian War
... Bishopric of Reval with the Harrien-Wierland gentry were on his side Livonian Order conditionally recognised his right of ownership of Estonia (Principality of Estonia) ... Once Eric XIV of Sweden became king he took quick actions to get involved in the war ... Erik XIV did not like this and The Northern Seven Years' War between The Free City of Lübeck, Denmark, Poland, and Sweden broke out ...

Famous quotes containing the word war:

    Tell me not, sweet, I am unkind,
    That from the nunnery
    Of thy chaste breast and quiet mind
    To war and arms I fly.
    Richard Lovelace (1618–1658)