List of People Considered Father or Mother of A Scientific Field - Formal Sciences - Mathematics

Mathematics

Subject Father/mother of … Reason
Algebra
Brahmagupta
Brahmagupta Al-Khwarizmi (Algorismi)
Diophantus
Full exposition of solving quadratic equations in his Al-Jabr and recognized algebra as an independent discipline.
First use of symbolism (syncopation) in his Arithmetica.
Algebraic topology Henri Poincaré Published Analysis Situs in 1895, introducing the concepts of homotopy and homology, which are now considered part of algebraic topology.
Analysis Augustin-Louis Cauchy
Karl Weierstrass
Analytic geometry René Descartes
Pierre de Fermat(founders)
For their independent invention of the Cartesian Coordinate System
Calculus Isaac Newton
Gottfried Leibniz
See Leibniz and Newton calculus controversy.
Classical analysis Madhava of Sangamagrama Developed Taylor series expansions of trigonometric functions
Computer science George Boole
Alan Turing
Invented Boolean logic, which is the basis of modern digital computer logic
Provided an influential formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine.
Descriptive geometry Gaspard Monge
(founder)
Developed a graphical protocol which creates three-dimensional virtual space on a two-dimensional plane
Fractal geometry Benoît B. Mandelbrot
Geometry Euclid Euclid's Elements deduced the principles of Euclidean geometry from a set of axioms.
Graph Theory Leonhard Euler See Seven Bridges of Königsberg
Italian school of algebraic geometry Corrado Segre Publications and students developing algebraic geometry
Non-Euclidean geometry János Bolyai,
Nikolai Lobachevsky(founders)
Independent development of hyperbolic geometry in which Euclid's fifth postulate is not true
Number theory Pythagoras
Probability Gerolamo Cardano, Pierre de Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Christiaan Huygens (founders) Fermat and Pascal co-founded probability theory, about which Huygens wrote the first book
Projective geometry Gérard Desargues(founder) By generalizing the use of vanishing points to include the case when these are infinitely far away
Tensor calculus Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro
(founder)
Book: The Absolute Differential Calculus
Trigonometry Aryabhata Hipparchus Constructed the first trigonometric table.
Vector algebra,
vector calculus
Willard Gibbs
Oliver Heaviside
(founders)
For their development and use of vectors in algebra and calculus

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Famous quotes containing the word mathematics:

    In mathematics he was greater
    Than Tycho Brahe, or Erra Pater:
    For he, by geometric scale,
    Could take the size of pots of ale;
    Resolve, by sines and tangents straight,
    If bread and butter wanted weight;
    And wisely tell what hour o’ th’ day
    The clock doth strike, by algebra.
    Samuel Butler (1612–1680)

    Mathematics alone make us feel the limits of our intelligence. For we can always suppose in the case of an experiment that it is inexplicable because we don’t happen to have all the data. In mathematics we have all the data ... and yet we don’t understand. We always come back to the contemplation of our human wretchedness. What force is in relation to our will, the impenetrable opacity of mathematics is in relation to our intelligence.
    Simone Weil (1909–1943)