⟨i′⟩, in the practical orthography of the Taa language, represents the glottalized or creaky vowel /ḭ/.
⟨ie⟩ is found in English, where it usually represents the /aɪ/ sound as in pries and allied or the /iː/ sound as in priest and rallied. Followed by an r, these vowels follow the standard changes to /aɪə/ and /ɪə/, as in brier and bier. Unique pronunciations are /ɪ/ in sieve, /ɛ/ in friend and /eɪ/ in lingerie. Unstressed it can represent /jə/, as in spaniel and conscience, or /ɨ/ or /ə/ as in mischief and hurriedly. It also can represent many vowel combinations, including /aɪə/ in diet and client, /aɪɛ/ in diester and quiescent, /iːə/ in alien and skier, /iːɛ/ in oriental and hygienic, and /iːʔiː/ in British medieval.
- In Dutch, the ⟨ie⟩ represents /i/. In German, it may represent the lengthened vowel as in Liebe (love) as well as the vowel combination as in Belgien (Belgium). In Latvian and Lithuanian, the ⟨ie⟩ is considered two letters for all purposes and represents /iæ̯/, commonly (although less precisely) transcribed as /i̯e/. In Maltese, ⟨ie⟩ is a distinct letter and represents a long close front unrounded vowel, /iː/) or /iɛ/. In Pinyin it is used to write the vowel /e/ in languages such as Yi, where e stands for /ɛ/.
⟨ig⟩ is used in Catalan for /t͡ʃ/ in the coda.
⟨ih⟩, in the practical orthography of the Taa language, represents the breathy or murmured vowel /i̤/. It is also used in Tongyong Pinyin and Wade-Giles transcription for the fricative vowels of Mandarin Chinese, which are spelled i in Hanyu Pinyin.
⟨ii⟩ is used in many languages with phonemic long vowels for /iː/.
⟨ij (IJ)⟩ (see article)
⟨il⟩ is used in French for /j/, historically /ʎ/, as in ail /aj/ "garlic".
⟨im⟩ is used in Portuguese orthography for /ĩ/.
⟨ím⟩ is used in Portuguese orthography for /ĩ/ before a consonant.
⟨in⟩ is used in many languages to write a nasal vowel. In Portuguese orthography before a consonant, and in many West African languages, it is /ĩ/, while in French it is /ɛ̃/.
⟨ín⟩ is used in Portuguese orthography for /ĩ/ before a consonant.
⟨în⟩ is used in French to write a vowel sound /ɛ̃/ that was once followed by a historical s, as in vous vîntes /vu vɛ̃t/ "you came".
⟨iŋ⟩ is used in Lakhota for the nasal vowel .
⟨io⟩ is used in Irish for /ɪ/, /ʊ/, and /iː/ between a slender and a broad consonant.
⟨ío⟩ is used in Irish for /iː/ between a slender and a broad consonant.
⟨iq⟩, in the practical orthography of the Taa language, it represents the pharyngealized vowel /iˤ/.
⟨iu⟩ is used in Irish for /ʊ/ between a slender and a broad consonant. In Mandarin pinyin, it is /i̯ou̯/ after a consonant. (In initial position, this is spelled you.)
⟨iú⟩ is used in Irish for /uː/ between a slender and a broad consonant.
⟨ix⟩ is used in Catalan for /ʃ/ after a vowel.
Read more about this topic: List Of Digraphs In Latin Alphabets
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