List of Digraphs in Latin Alphabets - D

D

dc⟩ is used in the orthography of Naro for the click /ᶢǀ/.

dd⟩ is used in English orthography to indicate a /d/ with a preceding (historically) short vowel (e.g. jaded /ˈdʒeɪdəd/ has a "long a" while ladder /ˈlædər/ has a "short a"). In Welsh orthography, ⟨dd⟩ represents a voiced dental fricative /ð/. It is treated as a distinct letter, named èdd, and placed between ⟨D⟩ and ⟨E⟩ in alphabetical order. In the ISO romanization of Korean, it is used for the fortis sound /t͈/, otherwise spelled ⟨tt⟩; examples are ddeokbokki and bindaeddeok. In the Basque alphabet, it represents a voiced palatal plosive /ɟ/, as in onddo, ('mushroom').

dg⟩ is used in English orthography for /dʒ/ in certain contexts, such as with judgement and hedge

dh⟩ is used in the Albanian alphabet, Swahili alphabet, and the orthography of the revived Cornish language for the voiced dental fricative /ð/.

In early traditional Cornish ⟨ȝ⟩ (yogh), and later ⟨th⟩, were used for this purpose. Edward Lhuyd is credited for introducing the grapheme to Cornish orthography in 1707 in his Archaeologia Britannica. In Irish orthography it represents the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ or the voiced palatal approximant /j/; at the beginning of a word it shows the lenition of /d̪ˠ/, for example mo dhoras /mˠə ɣoɾˠəsˠ/ ('my door' cf. doras /d̪ˠorˠəsˠ/ 'door'). In the pre-1985 orthography of Guinea, ⟨dh⟩ was used for the voiced alveolar implosive /ɗ/ in Pular, a Fula language. It is currently written ⟨ɗ⟩. In the orthography of Shona it is the opposite: ⟨dh⟩ represents /d/, and ⟨d⟩ /ɗ/. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages, ⟨dh⟩ represents a dental stop, /t̪/.
In addition, ⟨dh⟩ is used in various romanization systems. In transcriptions of Indo-Aryan languages, for example, it represents the murmured voiced dental plosive and in the romanization of Arabic, it denotes ⟨ﺫ⟩, which represents /ð/ in Modern Standard Arabic.

dj⟩ is used in the Faroese, French and many French-based orthographies for /dʒ/. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Warlpiri, Arrernte, and Pitjantjatjara, it represents a postalveolar stop such as /ṯ/ or /ḏ/; this sound is also written ⟨dy⟩, ⟨tj⟩, ⟨ty⟩, or ⟨c⟩.

dl⟩ is used in the Hmong language's Romanized Popular Alphabet for /tˡ/. In the Navajo language orthography, it represents /tɬ/, and in the orthography of Xhosa it represents /ɮ̈/. In Hadza it is ejective /cɬʼ/.

⟩ is used in the Tlingit alphabet for /tɬ/ (in Alaska, ⟨dl⟩ is used instead).

dm⟩ is used in Yélî Dnye of Papua New Guinea for doubly articulated and nasally released /t͡pn͡m/.

dn⟩ is used in Yélî Dnye of Papua New Guinea for nasally released /tn/.

dp⟩ is used in Yélî Dnye of Papua New Guinea for doubly articulated /t͡p/.

dq⟩ is used for the click /ᶢǃ/ in the orthography of Naro.

dr⟩ is used in the orthography of Malagasy for /ɖʐ/. See ⟨tr⟩.

dt⟩ is used in German, Swedish, and Sandawe orthography as well as the romanization of Thai for /t/. In Irish orthography it represents /d/.

dx⟩ is used in the orthographies of some Zapotecan languages for a voiced postalveolar fricative /ʒ/. It is placed between ⟨D⟩ and ⟨E⟩ in alphabetical order.

dy⟩ is used in the Xhosa language orthography for /dʲʱ/. In the Shona alphabet, it represents /dʒɡ/. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Warlpiri, Arrernte, and Pitjantjatjara, it represents a postalveolar stop such as /ṯ/ or /ḏ/. This sound is also written ⟨tj⟩, ⟨dj⟩, ⟨ty⟩, ⟨c⟩, or ⟨j⟩.

dz⟩ (see article)

⟩ is used in the Polish and Sorbian alphabets for /d͡ʑ/, the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate, as in dźwięk . ⟨Dź⟩ is never written before a vowel (⟨dzi⟩ is used instead, as in dziecko 'child').

⟩ is used in the Polish alphabet for a voiced retroflex affricate /d͡ʐ/ (e.g. em 'jam').

⟩ (see article)

Read more about this topic:  List Of Digraphs In Latin Alphabets

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