Kinetoscope

The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device. The Kinetoscope was designed for films to be viewed by one individual at a time through a peephole viewer window at the top of the device. The Kinetoscope was not a movie projector but introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the advent of video, by creating the illusion of movement by conveying a strip of perforated film bearing sequential images over a light source with a high-speed shutter. First described in conceptual terms by U.S. inventor Thomas Edison in 1888, it was largely developed by his employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson between 1889 and 1892. Dickson and his team at the Edison lab also devised the Kinetograph, an innovative motion picture camera with rapid intermittent, or stop-and-go, film movement, to photograph movies for in-house experiments and, eventually, commercial Kinetoscope presentations.

On April 14, 1894, the first commercial exhibition of motion pictures in history was given in New York City, using ten Kinetoscopes. Instrumental to the birth of American movie culture, the Kinetoscope also had a major impact in Europe; its influence abroad was magnified by Edison's decision not to seek international patents on the device, facilitating numerous imitations of and improvements on the technology. In 1895, Edison introduced the Kinetophone, which joined the Kinetoscope with a cylinder phonograph. Film projection, which Edison initially disdained as financially nonviable, soon superseded the Kinetoscope's individual exhibition model. Many of the projection systems developed by Edison's firm in later years would use the Kinetoscope name.

Read more about KinetoscopeDevelopment, Going Public, Kinetophone, Projecting Kinetoscopes

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Beginnings of The Chicago Film Industry - Motion Picture Patents Company
... Thomas Edison and William Dickson patented the Kinetoscope ... The Kinetoscope allowed a single viewer to watch a film reel through a small window ... At this time, Edison did not see any practical value to the Kinetoscope and dismissed the invention as a toy ...
Cinematograph - Invention
... to create a motion picture camera superior to Edison’s kinetoscope ... The Lumières endeavored to correct the flaws they perceived in the kinetoscope to create a machine capable of both sharper images and better illumination ... Furthermore, while Edison’s kinetoscope could only be viewed by one person at a time through an eye piece, peepshow style, the cinematograph could be projected onto a screen to be viewed by a large audience ...
Projecting Kinetoscopes
... Over the course of 1895, it became clear that the Kinetoscope was going to lose out on one end to projected motion pictures and, on the other, to a new "peep show" device, the ... In its second year of commercialization, the Kinetoscope operation's profits plummeted by more than 95 percent, to just over $4,000 ... the Projectoscope and then multiple iterations of the Projecting Kinetoscope ...
Thomas Edison - Menlo Park (1876–1881) - Media Inventions
... In 1891, Thomas Edison built a Kinetoscope, or peep-hole viewer ... The kinetograph and kinetoscope were both first publicly exhibited May 20, 1891 ... Officially the kinetoscope entered Europe when the rich American Businessman Irving T ...
Edison's Black Maria - History
... laboratories at West Orange, New Jersey, for the purpose of making film strips for the Kinetoscope ... public demonstration of films shot using the Kinetograph in the Black Maria, with a Kinetoscope viewer ... series of short films made by Dickson for the Kinetoscope in Edison's Black Maria studio with fellow assistant Fred Ott ...