Ionian Revolt

The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was the dissatisfaction of the Greek cities of Asia Minor with the tyrants appointed by Persia to rule them, along with the individual actions of two Milesian tyrants, Histiaeus and Aristagoras. The cities of Ionia had been conquered by Persia around 540 BC, and thereafter were ruled by native tyrants, nominated by the Persian satrap in Sardis. In 499 BC, the then tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras, launched a joint expedition with the Persian satrap Artaphernes to conquer Naxos, in an attempt to bolster his position. The mission was a debacle, and sensing his imminent removal as tyrant, Aristagoras chose to incite the whole of Ionia into rebellion against the Persian king Darius the Great.

In 498 BC, supported by troops from Athens and Eretria, the Ionians marched on, captured, and burnt Sardis. However, on their return journey to Ionia, they were followed by Persian troops, and decisively beaten at the Battle of Ephesus. This campaign was the only offensive action by the Ionians, who subsequently went on the defensive. The Persians responded in 497 BC with a three pronged attack aimed at recapturing the outlying areas of the rebellion, but the spread of the revolt to Caria meant that the largest army, under Daurises, relocated there. While initially campaigning successfully in Caria, this army was annihilated in an ambush at the Battle of Pedasus. This resulted in a stalemate for the rest of 496 BC and 495 BC.

By 494 BC the Persian army and navy had regrouped, and they made straight for the epicentre of the rebellion at Miletus. The Ionian fleet sought to defend Miletus by sea, but were decisively beaten at the Battle of Lade, after the defection of the Samians. Miletus was then besieged, captured, and its population was brought under Persian rule. This double defeat effectively ended the revolt, and the Carians surrendered to the Persians as a result. The Persians spent 493 BC reducing the cities along the west coast that still held out against them, before finally imposing a peace settlement on Ionia which was generally considered to be both just and fair.

The Ionian Revolt constituted the first major conflict between Greece and the Persian Empire, and as such represents the first phase of the Greco-Persian Wars. Although Asia Minor had been brought back into the Persian fold, Darius vowed to punish Athens and Eretria for their support of the revolt. Moreover, seeing that the myriad city states of Greece posed a continued threat to the stability of his Empire, according to Herodotus, Darius decided to conquer the whole of Greece. In 492 BC, the first Persian invasion of Greece, the next phase of the Greco-Persian Wars, would begin as a direct consequence of the Ionian Revolt.

Read more about Ionian Revolt:  Sources, Background, Naxos Campaign (499 BC), Start of The Ionian Revolt (499 BC), Ionian Offensive (498 BC), Persian Counter-offensive (497–495 BC), Aftermath, Significance

Other articles related to "ionian revolt, revolts, ionian, ionians, revolt":

Siege Of Eretria - Background
... The first Persian invasion of Greece had its immediate roots in the Ionian Revolt, the earliest phase of the Greco-Persian Wars ... the Persian Empire was still relatively young and highly expansionistic, but prone to revolts amongst its subject peoples ... usurper, and had spent considerable time extinguishing revolts against his rule ...
Artaphernes
... Subsequently he took an important part in suppressing the Ionian Revolt ... Athens and Eretria responded to the Ionian Greeks’ plea for help against Persia and sent troops ... Athenian and Eretrian ships transported the Athenian troops to the Ionian city of Ephesus ...
Battle Of The Eurymedon - Background
... The Persians found the Ionians difficult to rule, eventually settling for sponsoring a tyrant in each Ionian city ... The simmering tension finally broke into open revolt due to the actions of the tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras ... This triggered similar revolutions across Ionia, and indeed Doris and Aeolis, beginning the Ionian Revolt ...
Ionian Revolt - Significance
... The Ionian Revolt was primarily of significance as the opening chapter in, and causative agent of the Greco-Persian Wars, which included the two invasions of Greece and the famous battles of ... For the Ionian cities themselves, the revolt ended in failure, and substantial losses, both material and economic ... For the Persians, the revolt was significant in drawing them into an extended conflict with the states of Greece which would last for fifty years, over which time they would sustain ...

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