Indo-European Ablaut

Indo-European Ablaut

In linguistics, ablaut is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in Proto-Indo-European (PIE) and its far-reaching consequences in all of the modern Indo-European languages. An example of ablaut in English is the strong verb sing, sang, sung and its related noun song.

The term ablaut (from German ab- in the sense "down, reducing" + Laut "sound") was coined in the early nineteenth century by the linguist Jacob Grimm. However, the phenomenon itself was first observed more than 2,000 years earlier by the Sanskrit grammarians and codified by Pāṇini in his Ashtadhyayi, where the terms guṇa and vṛddhi were used to describe the phenomena now known as the full grade and lengthened grade, respectively. In the context of European languages, the phenomenon was first described in the early 18th century by the Dutch linguist Lambert ten Kate in his book Gemeenschap tussen de Gottische spraeke en de Nederduytsche ("Commonality between the Gothic language and Lower German (Dutch)", 1710).

Read more about Indo-European Ablaut:  Preliminary Considerations, Proto-Indo-European, Zero Grade, A-grade, Subsequent Development, Grammatical Function

Other articles related to "ablaut":

Indo-European Ablaut - Grammatical Function
... In PIE, there were already ablaut differences within the paradigms of verbs and nouns ... An example of ablaut in the paradigm of the noun in PIE can be found in *pértus, from which the English words ford and (via Latin) port are derived (both via the zero-grade stem *pr̥t-) root (p-r ... for example, is the direct descendant of that seen in the Indo-European verb paradigm ...
Apophony - Indo-European Linguistics - Indo-European Ablaut
... Main article Indo-European ablaut See also Germanic strong verb and English grammar#Irregular verbs In Indo-European linguistics, ablaut is the vowel alternation that produces such related words as ... The difference in the vowels results from the alternation (in the Proto-Indo-European language) of the vowel e with the vowel o or with no vowel ... To cite a few other examples of Indo-European ablaut, English has a certain class of verbs, called strong verbs, in which the vowel changes to indicate a ...