The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation to the behaviour of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations. It was first stated by Émile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of Boyle's law and Charles's law. It can also be derived from kinetic theory, as was achieved (apparently independently) by August Krönig in 1856 and Rudolf Clausius in 1857.
... The equation of state for an ideal or perfect gas is the ideal gas law and reads where P is the pressure, V is the volume, n is amount of gas (in ... It can also be written as where is the specific gas constant for a particular gas, in units J/(kg K), and ρ = m/V is density ... This notation is the "gas dynamicist's" version, which is more practical in modeling of gas flows involving acceleration without chemical reactions ...
... one of the first to perform markedly better than the ideal gas law ... While the equation is definitely superior to the ideal gas law and does predict the formation of a liquid phase, the agreement with experimental data is limited for ... The van der Waals equation may be considered as the ideal gas law, “improved” due to two independent reasons Molecules are thought as particles with volume, not material points ...
... and p = (px, py, pz) denote the position vector and momentum vector of a particle of an ideal gas, respectively ... is where the first equality is Newton's second law, and the second line uses Hamilton's equations and the equipartition theorem ... over a system of N particles yields By Newton's third law and the ideal gas assumption, the net force on the system is the force applied by the walls of their container, and ...
... the concept of a chemical element and clarifying the Law of conservation of mass for chemical reactions. 1794 Proust's Law of definite proportions generalizes the concept of equivalent weights to all types of chemical reaction, not simply acid–base reactions. 1809 Gay-Lussac's Law of combining volumes, stating an integer relationship between the volumes of reactants and products in the chemical reactions of gases ...
... The density of a gas at a specific pressure can be estimated by using the ideal gas law ... Doubling absolute pressure doubles the density of a gas, and doubling absolute temperature halves the density ... The number of molecules in a given gas volume depends on the pressure and temperature ...
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