Iberian Union

The Iberian union was a political unit that governed all of the Iberian Peninsula south of the Pyrenees from 1580–1640, through a dynastic union between the monarchy of Portugal and the Spanish branch of the Habsburg monarchy after the War of the Portuguese Succession. Following the Portuguese crisis of succession, a dynastic union joined the crowns of Castile, Portugal and Aragon along with their respective colonial possessions, under the rule of the Hispanic monarchy.The Habsburg king was the only element of connection between the multiple kingdoms and territories. The institutions government and legal traditions of each kingdom remained independent of each other. The alien laws (Leyes de extranjeria) determined that the national of one kingdom was a foreigner in all the other Iberian kingdoms. The term Iberian union is a creation of modern historians.

The unification of the peninsula had long been a goal of the region's monarchs with the intent of restoring the visigothic monarchy. Sancho III of Navarre and Alfonso VII of León and Castile both took the title Imperator totius Hispaniae, meaning "Emperor of All Hispania" centuries before. The union could have been achieved earlier had Miguel da Paz (1498–1500), Prince of Portugal and Asturias, become king. He died early in his childhood.

The history of Portugal from the dynastic crisis in 1578 to the first Braganza Dynasty monarchs was a period of transition. The Portuguese Empire's spice trade was peaking at the start of this period. It continued to enjoy widespread influence after Vasco da Gama had finally reached the East by sailing around Africa in 1497–98. Vasco da Gama's achievement completed the exploratory efforts inaugurated by Henry the Navigator, and opened an oceanic route for the profitable spice trade into Europe that bypassed the Middle East.

Throughout the 17th century, the increasing predations and surrounding of Portuguese trading posts in the East by the Dutch, English and French, and their rapidly growing intrusion into the Atlantic slave trade, undermined Portugal's near monopoly on the lucrative oceanic spice and slave trades. This sent the Portuguese spice trade into a long decline. To a lesser extent the diversion of wealth from Portugal by the Habsburg monarchy to help support the Catholic side of the Thirty Years' War, also created strains within the union, although Portugal did benefit from Spanish military power in helping to retain Brazil and in disrupting Dutch trade. These events, and those that occurred at the end of Aviz dynasty and the period of Iberian Union, led Portugal to a state of dependency on its colonies, first India and then Brazil.

Read more about Iberian Union:  Establishment, The Continuity in The Administrative System, The Portuguese Empire Challenged, Decline of The Union and Revolt of Portugal, Restoration War and The End of The Union

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History Of The Azores - Iberian Union
... He sent his combined Iberian fleet to clear the French traders from the Azores, decisively hanging his prisoners-of-war from the yardarms and contributing to the "Black ... Azores was returned to Portuguese control with the end of the Iberian Union, not by the military efforts, as these were already in Restoration War efforts in the mainland, but by the people attacking a well-fortified ...
Cedros (Horta) - History
... The church was originally constructed during the Iberian Union, in grand dimensions and in a style different from other churches on Faial (including four bells in the ... Another interesting holdover of the Iberian Union was the enormous silver-plated oil lamp that hung within the church (the only other lamp of similar dimensions was hung in Spain) ... Also, the end of the Iberian Union, resulted in the expulsion of most of the Spanish living in the parish (which included Salão at the time) ...
Pre-1600 Atlantic Hurricane Seasons - Storms - 1575–1599
... Philip II of Spain, king of Iberian Union, consequently ordered that the Spanish Navy (Armada in Spanish) under captain general Alváro Flores de Quiñones, Tierra Firma fleet, and ... in telling that only 14 or 15 of 220 ships sailing for Iberian Union survived the year and that about 99 disappeared near Florida ... He contends that Iberian Union lost only five ships this year four in this storm in Old Bahama Channel and one returning from Goa ...
Spanish Conquistadors - Iberian Union Period (1580–1640)
... of the Portuguese Aviz dynasty and later to the integration of Portugal and its empire at the Iberian Union for 60 years under Sebastian's uncle Philip II of Spain ... his father, due to this, Philip was King of England and Ireland in a dynastic union with Spain ... As a result of the Iberian Union, Phillip II's enemies became Portugal's enemies, such as the Dutch in the Dutch–Portuguese War, England or France ...
Iberian Union - Restoration War and The End of The Union
... Several decisions made by John IV to strengthen his forces made these victories possible ... On December 11, 1640, the Council of War was created to organize all the operations ...

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