History of Genetics - Classical Genetics

Classical Genetics

The significance of Mendel's work was not understood until early in the twentieth century, after his death, when his research was re-discovered by other scientists working on similar problems. Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns and Erich von Tschermak

There was then a feud between Bateson and Pearson over the hereditary mechanism. Fisher solved this in "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance".

1865: Gregor Mendel's paper, Experiments on Plant Hybridization
1869: Friedrich Miescher discovers a weak acid in the nuclei of white blood cells that today we call DNA
1880 - 1890: Walther Flemming, Eduard Strasburger, and Edouard van Beneden elucidate chromosome distribution during cell division
1889: Hugo de Vries postulates that "inheritance of specific traits in organisms comes in particles", naming such particles "(pan)genes"
1903: Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri hypothesizes that chromosomes, which segregate in a Mendelian fashion, are hereditary units; see the chromosome theory
1905: William Bateson coins the term "genetics" in a letter to Adam Sedgwick and at a meeting in 1906
1908: Hardy-Weinberg law derived.
1910: Thomas Hunt Morgan shows that genes reside on chromosomes
1913: Alfred Sturtevant makes the first genetic map of a chromosome
1913: Gene maps show chromosomes containing linear arranged genes
1918: Ronald Fisher publishes "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance" the modern synthesis of genetics and evolutionary biology starts. See population genetics.
1928: Frederick Griffith discovers that hereditary material from dead bacteria can be incorporated into live bacteria (see Griffith's experiment)
1931: Crossing over is identified as the cause of recombination
1933: Jean Brachet is able to show that DNA is found in chromosomes and that RNA is present in the cytoplasm of all cells.
1941: Edward Lawrie Tatum and George Wells Beadle show that genes code for proteins; see the original central dogma of genetics

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Other articles related to "classical genetics, classical":

Classical Genetics

Classical genetics consists of the technique and methodologies of genetics that predate the advent of molecular biology. A key discovery of classical genetics in eukaryotes was genetic linkage. The observation that some genes do not segregate independently at meiosis broke the laws of Mendelian inheritance, and provided science with a way to map characteristics to a location on the chromosomes. Linkage maps are still used today, especially in breeding for plant improvement.

After the discovery of the genetic code and such tools of cloning as restriction enzymes, the avenues of investigation open to geneticists were greatly broadened. Some classical genetic ideas have been supplanted with the mechanistic understanding brought by molecular discoveries, but many remain intact and in use. Classical genetics is often contrasted with reverse genetics, and aspects of molecular biology are sometimes referred to as molecular genetics.

Classical Forward Genetics
... By the classical genetics approach, a researcher would then locate (map) the gene on its chromosome by crossbreeding with individuals that carry other unusual traits and ... Classical geneticists would have used phenotypic traits to map the new mutant alleles ... This type of saturation mutagenesis within classical experiments was used to define sets of genes that were a bare minimum for the appearance of specific phenotypes ...

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