As the literal English translation "German Empire" denotes a monarchy, the term is used only in reference to Germany before the fall of the monarchies at the end of World War I in 1918. To refer to the entire 1871-1945 period, the partially translated "German Reich" (/ˈdʒɜrmən ˈraɪk/), which has no monarchical connotations, is often used, with "German Realm" being a more appropriate direct translation of the official title. Informally, this nation was also simply known as Germany.
The name "Deutsches Reich" was also often applied in contemporary maps to the Holy Roman Empire (911–1806). The history of Germany during the time of the German Reich (German Realm) is conventionally broken into three distinct periods:
- the monarchy presided over by Emperors from the Prussian House of Hohenzollern, known in English as the German Empire (1871–1918)
- the republic informally called the Weimar Republic (1919–33)
- the National Socialist state commonly known as the Third Reich or Nazi Germany (1933–45)
Like its Latin counterpart, imperium, the word reich does not necessarily connote a monarchy; the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany used the name Deutsches Reich, while both were at least de jure republican in structure.
Following the de facto annexation of Austria in 1938, Germany informally named itself the Greater German Reich (German: Großdeutsches Reich). This name was made the official state name only during the last two years (1943–45) of Nazi rule under Adolf Hitler.
Other articles related to "german reich, german, reich":
... entire postal system of Baden changed hands to the German Reichspost and since then the postal history of Baden is part of the German Reich ... until the end of 1871, but Baden stamps could be exchanged for stamps of the German Reich until February 25, 1872 ...
... Allies was signed on 12 September 1990, there was no mention of the term Deutsches Reich, however the Allies paraphrased the international legal personality of Germany as "Germany as a whole" in the ... of Germany (West Germany, FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany, GDR) agreed to be bound by certain conditions which they had to ratify ...
... for instance, to resolve the issue of whether the West German Federal Republic would be the successor state of the German Reich—with all at the time uncodified implications ... while in the case of the downfall of the German Reich, the Federal Republic would need to have reconstituted itself, merely a re-organization after overcoming the Nazi ... or if constituent power (pouvoir constituant) lay with the entirety of the German People as it was spread across the German states ...
... School is the tool with which the German Reich indoctrinates and controls the citizenry, starting in their youth ... The Hitler Jugend and Bund Deutscher Mädel are compulsory for children in the German Reich the Nazi gender roles having changed little since their foundation ... The Reich education system is only for Germany allied states and occupied territories control their own education systems ...
Famous quotes containing the word german:
“So far no actual revolutionary masses have come into view. This might be considered sufficient reason for reproaching someone who has set out to describe a revolution. But it is not our fault. This is, after all, a German revolution.”
—Alfred Döblin (18781957)