Gambit

A gambit (from ancient Italian gambetto, meaning tripping) is a chess opening in which a player, most often White, sacrifices material, usually a pawn, with the hope of achieving a resulting advantageous position. Some well-known examples are the King's Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.f4), Queen's Gambit (1.d4 d5 2.c4), and Evans Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.b4). A gambit used by Black may also be called a gambit (e.g. the Latvian Gambit—1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f5 or Englund Gambit—1.d4 e5), but is sometimes called a "countergambit" (e.g. the Albin Countergambit—1.d4 d5 2.c4 e5 and Greco Counter-Gambit, an old-fashioned name for the Latvian Gambit).

The word "gambit" was originally applied to chess openings in 1561 by Spanish priest Rúy López de Segura, from an Italian expression dare il gambetto (to put a leg forward in order to trip someone). Lopez studied this maneuver, and so the Italian word gained the Spanish form gambito that led to French gambit, which has influenced the English spelling of the word. The broader sense of "opening move meant to gain advantage" was first recorded in English in 1855.


Read more about Gambit:  Strategy, Soundness, Examples

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... February 1912, he published an article A New Gambit ... The Swiss Gambit ... He introduced in practice, along with Swiss Gambit (1.f4 f5 2.e4), Polish Defense (1.d4 b5) and Lemberg Gambit, also known as Tennison Gambit or Abonyi Gambit, (1.Nf3 ...