Chola dynasty (Tamil:சோழர்) was a Tamil dynasty which was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in southern India. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BC left by Asoka, of Maurya Empire; as one of the Three Crowned Kings, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century AD.
The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, but they ruled a significantly larger area at the height of their power from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century. The whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of two centuries and more. Under Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-east Asia. The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the celebrated expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the overthrow after an unprecedented naval war of the maritime empire of Srivijaya, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.
During the period 1010–1200, the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh. Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India, annexed parts of what is now Sri Lanka and occupied the islands of the Maldives. Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganges and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala. He also successfully invaded kingdoms of the Malay Archipelago. The Chola dynasty went into decline at the beginning of the 13th century with the rise of the Pandyas, who ultimately caused their downfall.
The Cholas left a lasting legacy. Their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in building temples has resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture. The Chola kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but also as centres of economic activity. They pioneered a centralised form of government and established a disciplined bureaucracy.
Other articles related to "chola, cholas, kingdom, chola kingdom":
... Main article Chola Empire See also Early Cholas, Medieval Cholas, and Later Cholas Around 850, out of obscurity rose Vijayalaya, made use of an opportunity arising out of ... Vijayalaya revived the Chola dynasty and his son Aditya I helped establish their independence ... He invaded Pallava kingdom in 903 and killed the Pallava king Aparajita in battle, ending the Pallava reign ...
... The history of the Chola dynasty has inspired many Tamil authors to produce literary and artistic creations during the last several decades ... These works of popular literature have helped continue the memory of the great Cholas in the minds of the Tamil people ... leading up to the ascension of Uttama Chola to the Chola throne ...
Famous quotes containing the word kingdom:
“The kingdom of our Prospero, Freud, now dissolves in air.”
—Mason Cooley (b. 1927)