The Battle of Vukovar (Croatian: Bitka za Vukovar, Serbian: Битка за Вуковар, Bitka za Vukovar) was an 87-day siege of Vukovar in eastern Croatia by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), supported by various paramilitary forces from Serbia, between August and November 1991. Before the Croatian War of Independence the Baroque town was a prosperous, mixed community of Croats, Serbs and other ethnic groups. As Yugoslavia began to break up, Serbia's President Slobodan Milošević and Croatia's President Franjo Tuđman started to pursue nationalist politics. In 1990, an armed insurrection was started by Croatian Serb militias, supported by the Serbian government and paramilitary groups, who seized control of Serb-populated areas of Croatia. The JNA began to intervene in favour of the rebellion, and conflict broke out in the eastern Croatian region of Slavonia in May 1991. In August the JNA launched a full-scale attack against Croatian-held territory in eastern Slavonia, including Vukovar.
Vukovar was defended by around 1,800 lightly armed soldiers of the Croatian National Guard (ZNG) and civilian volunteers, against 36,000 JNA soldiers and Serbian paramilitaries equipped with heavy armour and artillery. During the battle, shells and rockets were fired into the town at a rate of up to 12,000 a day. At the time it was the fiercest and most protracted battle in Europe, and Vukovar was the first major European town entirely destroyed since the Second World War. When Vukovar fell on 18 November 1991, hundreds of soldiers and civilians were massacred by Serb forces and at least 31,000 civilians were deported from the town and its surroundings. Most of Vukovar was ethnically cleansed of its non-Serb population and became part of the self-declared Republic of Serbian Krajina. Several Serb military and political officials, including Milošević, were later indicted and in some cases jailed for war crimes committed during and after the battle.
The battle exhausted the JNA and proved a turning point in the Croatian war. A ceasefire was declared a few weeks later. Vukovar remained in Serb hands until 1998 when it was peacefully reintegrated into Croatia. It has since been rebuilt but has less than half of its pre-war population and many buildings are still scarred by the battle. Its two principal ethnic communities remain deeply divided and it has not regained its former prosperity.
Read more about Battle Of Vukovar: Background, Prelude To The Battle, Opposing Forces, Phase I, August To September 1991, Phase II, October To November 1991, War Crimes, Occupation, Restoration and Reconstruction, Commemorations and Memorials, Films and Books
Other articles related to "battle of vukovar, vukovar, battle":
... He commanded the 3rd Battallion of the 204th (Vukovar) Croatian Army Brigade during Battle of Vukovar, along with two of his sons, where he led actions against the JNA and local Serb forces ... assigned to defend the vital Trpinjska cesta (Trpinja road), an open road leading directly into Vukovar ... for him is held every year on the anniversary of his death in Vukovar, attended by many former comrades and political dignitaries ...
... The battle was portrayed in the Serbian films Dezerter ("The Deserter") (1992), Kaži zašto si me ostavio ("Why Have You Left Me?") (1993) and ... A 2006 Serbian documentary film about the battle, Vukovar – Final Cut, won the Human Rights Award at the 2006 Sarajevo Film Festival ... The battle is also at the centre of Serbian writer Vladimir Arsenijević's 1995 novel U potpalublju ("In the Hold") ...
Famous quotes containing the word battle:
“If you are willing to inconvenience yourself in the name of discipline, the battle is half over. Leave Grandmas early if the children are acting impossible. Depart the ballpark in the sixth inning if youve warned the kids and their behavior is still poor. If we do something like this once, our kids will remember it for a long time.”
—Fred G. Gosman (20th century)