Zonulin is a protein that modulates the permeability of tight junctions between cells of the wall of the digestive tract. Initially discovered in 2000 as the target of zonula occludens toxin, secreted by cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae, it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease and diabetes mellitus type 1. It is being studied as a target for vaccine adjuvants. ALBA Therapeutics is developing a zonulin receptor antagonist, AT-1001, that is currently in phase 2 clinical trials.
Gliadin (glycoprotein present in wheat) activates zonulin signaling irrespective of the genetic expression of autoimmunity, leading to increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules.
Other articles related to "zonulin":
... In the process it recruits more CXCR3 receptor, increases MyD88 and Zonulin expression ... be involved in increased risk for type 1 diabetes as zonulin production is also a factor ... This triggering of zonulin ultimately results in the degradation of tight junctions allowing large solutes, such as proteolytic resistant gliadin fragments to enter ...