Zolpidem

Zolpidem (sold under the brand names Ambien, Ambien CR, Stilnox, and Sublinox) is a prescription medication used for the treatment of insomnia, as well as some brain disorders. It is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to GABAA receptors at the same location as benzodiazepines. It works quickly (usually within 15 minutes) and has a short half-life (two to three hours).

Zolpidem has not adequately demonstrated effectiveness in maintaining sleep (unless delivered in a controlled-release form); however, it is effective in initiating sleep. Its hypnotic effects are similar to those of the benzodiazepine class of drugs, but it is molecularly distinct from the classical benzodiazepine molecule and is classified as an imidazopyridine. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, which is used for benzodiazepine overdose, can also reverse zolpidem's sedative/hypnotic and memory-impairing effects.

As an anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant, the drug's effects are not evident until dosages 10 and 20 times those required for sedation, respectively, are reached. For that reason, zolpidem has never been approved for either muscle relaxation or seizure prevention. Such drastically increased doses are also more inclined to induce one or more of the drug's adverse side effects, including hallucinations and amnesia.

The patent in the United States on zolpidem was held by the French pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi-Aventis. On April 23, 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 13 generic versions of zolpidem tartrate. Zolpidem is available from several generic manufacturers in the UK, as a generic from Sandoz in South Africa and TEVA in Israel, as well as from other manufacturers such as Ratiopharm (Germany).

Read more about ZolpidemMedical Uses, Adverse Effects, Mechanism of Action, Research

Other articles related to "zolpidem":

Ambien CR
... Zolpidem (sold under the brand names Ambien, Ambien CR, Stilnox, and Sublinox) is a prescription medication used for the treatment of insomnia and some brain disorders ... Zolpidem has not adequately demonstrated effectiveness in maintaining sleep, unless delivered in a controlled-release (CR) form ... receptor antagonist, which is used for benzodiazepine overdose, can also reverse zolpidem's sedative/hypnotic and memory-impairing effects ...
Ambien CR - Research
... Zolpidem may provide short-lasting but effective improvement in symptoms of aphasia present in some survivors of stroke ... Use of zolpidem for this application remains experimental at this time, and is not officially approved by any pharmaceutical manufacturers of zolpidem or medical regulatory agencies worldwide ... Zolpidem is being studied to determine if zolpidem is associated with improved responsiveness or regional cerebral perfusion in patients with persistent vegetative states ...
Zolpidem - Research
... Zolpidem may provide short-lasting but effective improvement in symptoms of aphasia present in some survivors of stroke ... Use of zolpidem for this application remains experimental at this time, and is not officially approved by any pharmaceutical manufacturers of zolpidem or medical regulatory ... Zolpidem is being studied to determine if zolpidem is associated with improved responsiveness or regional cerebral perfusion in patients with persistent vegetative states(coma) ...
Macropsia - Causes - Medications
... most prevalent research on prescription drugs with side effects of macropsia deals with zolpidem and citalopram ... Zolpidem is a drug prescribed for insomnia, and although it has proven beneficial effects, there have been numerous reported cases of adverse perceptual ... of macropsia, which occurred twenty minutes after taking 10 mg zolpidem ...
Ambien CR - Special Precautions - Pregnancy
... Zolpidem has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA ... In one case report, zolpidem was found in cord blood at delivery ... Zolpidem is only recommended for use during pregnancy when benefits outweigh risks ...