The Parthian Empire ((/ˈpɑrθiən/; 247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire (/ˈɑrsəsɪd/), was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran better known as ancient Persia. Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the Parthia region in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. Mithridates I of Parthia (r. c. 171–138 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia from the Seleucids. At its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now south-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran. The empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and Han Empire of China, became a center of trade and commerce.
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... Roman–Parthian Wars Carrhae War of 40–33 BC War over Armenia Trajan's Parthian campaign War of 161–166 Ctesiphon (198) Nisibis By the 2nd century AD the territories of Persia ... Parthia was the most formidable enemy of the Roman Empire in the east ... Trajan also campaigned against the Parthians from 114-117 and briefly captured their capital Ctesiphon, putting the puppet ruler Parthamaspates on the throne ...
... On the continent, the extension of the Empire's borders beyond the Rhine hung in the balance for some time, with the emperor Caligula apparently poised to invade Germania in AD 39, and Cnaeus ... With Dacia quelled, Trajan subsequently invaded the Parthian empire to the east, his conquests taking the Roman Empire to its greatest extent ... Caspian Sea became a focus of contention between Rome and the Parthian Empire, and control of the region was repeatedly gained and lost ...
... Christianity further spread eastward under the Parthian Empire, which displayed a high tolerance of religious matters ...
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