## Observability

In control theory, **observability** is a measure for how well internal states of a system can be inferred by knowledge of its external outputs. The observability and controllability of a system are mathematical duals. The concept of observability was introduced by American-Hungarian scientist Rudolf E. Kalman for linear dynamic systems.

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### Some articles on observability:

Post-silicon Validation -

... environments enjoy the tremendous advantage of nearly perfect

**Observability**... environments enjoy the tremendous advantage of nearly perfect

**observability**, meaning the designer can see any signal at nearly any time ...Linear Time-invariant Distributed Parameter Systems - Duality Between Controllability and

... the finite-dimensional case, controllability and

**Observability**... the finite-dimensional case, controllability and

**observability**are dual concepts (at least when for the domain of and the co-domain of the usual L2 choice is made) ... of the different concepts is Exact controllability ↔ Exact**observability**, Approximate controllability ↔ Approximate**observability**, Null controllability ↔ Final state**observability**...**Observability**- Static Systems and General Topological Spaces

...

**Observability**may also be characterized for steady state systems (systems typically defined in terms of algebraic equations and inequalities), or more generally, for sets ... Just as

**observability**criteria are used to predict the behavior of Kalman filters or other observers in the dynamic system case,

**observability**criteria for sets in are ... In the nonlinear case,

**observability**can be characterized for individual variables, and also for local estimator behavior rather than just global behavior ...

Geophysical MASINT - Military Requirements

... "Stealth" low-

... "Stealth" low-

**observability**aircraft have gotten much attention, and new surface ship designs feature**observability**reduction ... Of course, submariners feel they invented low**observability**, and others are simply learning from them ...Main Site Subjects

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