The Kerr effect, also called the quadratic electro-optic effect (QEO effect), is a change in the refractive index of a material in response to an applied electric field. The Kerr effect is distinct from the Pockels effect in that the induced index change is directly proportional to the square of the electric field instead of varying linearly with it. All materials show a Kerr effect, but certain liquids display it more strongly than others. The Kerr effect was discovered in 1875 by John Kerr, a Scottish physicist.
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... John Kerr was born on 17 December 1824 at Ardrossan, Scotland ... Kerr's most important experimental work was the discovery of double refraction in solid and liquid dielectrics in an electrostatic field (1875) and of the so-called Kerr effect ... In the Kerr effect, a change in refractive index is proportional to the square of the electric field ...
... In the optical or AC Kerr effect, an intense beam of light in a medium can itself provide the modulating electric field, without the need for an external field to be applied ... to produce significant variations in refractive index via the AC Kerr effect ... The optical Kerr effect manifests itself temporally as self-phase modulation, a self-induced phase- and frequency-shift of a pulse of light as it travels through a medium ...
... In addition to the polar, longitudinal and transverse Kerr effect which depend linear on the respective magnetization components, there are also higher order quadratic effects, for which the Kerr ... Those effects are referred to as Voigt effect or quadratic Kerr effect ... Quadratic magneto-optic Kerr effect (QMOKE) is found strong in Heusler alloys such as Co2FeSi and Co2MnGe ...
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