Some articles on formation, formations, formation water:
... The origin of SP across formation can be attributed to two processes involving the movement of ions Streaming potential (Ek) Electrochemical potential (Ec) Streaming potential ... potential appears when mud filtrate is forced into the formation under the differential pressure between mud column and formation ... is produced when the flow takes place across mud-cake in front of permeable formations, across permeable formations being invaded, and across shale beds ...
... A salinity difference between the drilling mud and the formation water acts as a natural battery and will cause several voltage effects ... This "battery" causes a movement of charged ions between the hole and the formation water where there is enough permeability in the rock ... The most important voltage is set up as a permeable formation permits ion movement, reducing the voltage between the formation water and the mud ...
Famous quotes containing the words water and/or formation:
“The Indian navigator naturally distinguishes by a name those parts of a stream where he has encountered quick water and forks, and again, the lakes and smooth water where he can rest his weary arms, since those are the most interesting and more arable parts to him.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“... the mass migrations now habitual in our nation are disastrous to the family and to the formation of individual character. It is impossible to create a stable society if something like a third of our people are constantly moving about. We cannot grow fine human beings, any more than we can grow fine trees, if they are constantly torn up by the roots and transplanted ...”
—Agnes E. Meyer (18871970)