History and Progress
- April 1986 - The term high-temperature superconductor was first used to designate the new family of cuprate-perovskite ceramic materials discovered by Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller, for which they won the Nobel Prize in Physics the following year. Their discovery of the first high-temperature superconductor, LaBaCuO, with a transition temperature of 35 K, generated great excitement.
- LSCO (La2-xSrxCuO2) discovered the same year.
- January 1987 - YBCO was discovered to have a Tc of 90 K.
- 1988 - BSCCO discovered with Tc up to 107 K, and TBCCO (T=thallium) discovered to have Tc of 125 K.
- As of 2009, the highest-temperature superconductor (at ambient pressure) is mercury barium calcium copper oxide (HgBa2Ca2Cu3Ox), at 138 K and is held by a cuprate-perovskite material, possibly 164 K under high pressure.
- Recently, other unconventional superconductors, not based on cuprate structure, have been discovered. Some have unusually high values of the critical temperature, Tc, and hence they are sometimes also called high-temperature superconductors.
After more than twenty years of intensive research the origin of high-temperature superconductivity is still not clear, but it seems that instead of electron-phonon attraction mechanisms, as in conventional superconductivity, one is dealing with genuine electronic mechanisms (e.g. by antiferromagnetic correlations), and instead of s-wave pairing, d-waves are substantial.
One goal of all this research is room-temperature superconductivity.
Read more about this topic: Unconventional Superconductor
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Famous quotes containing the words progress and/or history:
“Let me live onward; you shall find that, though slower, the progress of my character will liquidate all these debts without injustice to higher claims. If a man should dedicate himself to the payment of notes, would not this be an injustice? Does he owe no debt but money? And are all claims on him to be postponed to a landlords or a bankers?”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“What has history to do with me? Mine is the first and only world! I want to report how I find the world. What others have told me about the world is a very small and incidental part of my experience. I have to judge the world, to measure things.”
—Ludwig Wittgenstein (18891951)