As part of the proposed Operation Yu-Go, a Pearl Harbour–style surprise attack raid on American shipping at Majuro atoll, five IJN submarines - I-36, I-38, I-41, I-44, and I-53 - were to be modified to allow each to carry four torpedo-armed Ka-Tsu vehicles. Initial landing trials, however, revealed many deficiencies of the Ka-Tsu, most of which were caused by its severely underpowered engine. In addition, after the carrying submarine surfaced, it was found that at least 20 minutes were necessary to remove the Ka-Tsu's watertight engine covers and launch the tank.
Full-scale landing trials were carried out with a submarine carrying two Ka-Tsus. These tests revealed that the Ka-Tsus were noisy, very slow in the water, and their tracks tended to slip if they encountered even the slightest obstacles. In addition, it was also discovered that their engine compartments were not completely watertight; the covers tended to leak underwater, eventually leading to the vehicle's entire engine section becoming flooded. In response to these criticisms, the Ka-Tsu's designer pointed out he had been asked to design a "pure” amphibian which was suited to neither underwater transport nor carrying a pair of full size torpedoes (each of which weighed one ton).
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“It is critical vision alone which can mitigate the unimpeded operation of the automatic.”
—Marshall McLuhan (19111980)