Turbocharged Direct Injection - History

History

The first passenger car to be powered by direct injection was the 1986 Fiat Croma 2.0 TD i.d. (Turbo Diesel iniezione diretta pump was developed by Bosch in accordance to the Fiat's engineers specifications). The first Volkswagen Group TDI engine was the Audi-developed 2.5 litre R5 TDI – an inline five-cylinder engine (R5), introduced in the Audi 100 in 1989 – and this variant is still used today in Volkswagen Marine applications. The TDI arrangement has been enhanced through various stages of development – by improving the efficiency of the turbocharger, increasing the pressure at which fuel can be injected, and more precisely timing when the injection of fuel takes place. There have been a few major 'generations', starting with what are known as "VE", and "VP" (German: VerteilerPumpe) engines, which use a distributor-type injection pump. In 2000, the Pumpe Düse (PD, variously translated "pump nozzle", "unit injector", "pump injector") TDI engine began to appear in Europe, eventually coming to North America a few years later.

The Pumpe Düse design was a reaction to the development of high-pressure common rail fuel injection systems by competitors - an attempt by Volkswagen Group to create an in-house technology of comparable performance that would not require any royalties to be paid. While Pumpe Düse engines had a significantly higher injection pressure than older engines, they are slightly less refined when compared to the very latest common rail and, with the original solenoid-operated unit injectors, weren't able to control injection timing as precisely (a major factor in improving emissions). Some current PD TDI engines now use piezoelectric unit injectors, allowing far greater control of injection timing and fuel delivery. From the 2009 model year onwards, TDI engines using the common rail (CR) technique, again with piezoelectric injectors, are now used in various Volkswagen Group models. The CR engines are available in many sizes, including 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, 2.7, 3.0, 4.2 and 6.0 litres, with outputs from 55 to 370 kW (75 to 500 PS) from these engines.

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