A tughra (Ottoman Turkish: طغراء; Ṭuğrā) is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of an Ottoman sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence. It was also carved on his seal and stamped on the coins minted during his reign. Very elaborate decorated versions were created for important documents that were also works of art in the tradition of Ottoman illumination, such as the example of Suleiman the Magnificent in the gallery below.

The tughra was designed at the beginning of the sultan's reign and drawn by the court calligrapher or nişancı on written documents. The first tughra belonged to Orhan I (1284–1359), the second ruler of the Ottoman Empire and it evolved until it reached the classical form in the tughra of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1494–1566).

Tughras served a purpose similar to the cartouche in ancient Egypt or the Royal Cypher of British monarchs. Every Ottoman sultan had his own individual tughra.

Read more about Tughra:  Visual Elements of A Tughra, Tughras of The Ottoman Sultans, Uses of Tughra Outside of The Ottoman Context, Modern Interpretations of Tughras

Other articles related to "tughra, tughras":

Postage Stamps And Postal History Of Turkey - Ottoman Empire - To The End of The Nineteenth Century
... large stamps with an intricate design known by philatelists as the "Arms and Tughra" issue, the only western writing being the value both in numerals and spelled out in French ... The center of the stamps bears the Ottoman coat of arms surrounding the tughra of Abdul Hamid II ... The stamps have an intricate design incorporating the tughra and the bridge at Larissa and are of interest for their unusual octagonal shape and perforations which permit ...
... Mu'ayyad al-Din Abu Isma‘il al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Tughra'i (1061 – c 1121) was an 11th–12th century Persian physician ... Mu'ayyad al-Din al-Tughra'i, was born in Isfahan in 1061CE, and was an important alchemist, poet, and administrative secretary (therefore the name Tughra'i') ... In the field of alchemy, al-Tughra'i is best known for his large compendium titled Mafatih al-rahmah wa-masabih al-hikmah, which incorporated extensive extracts from earlier Arabic alchemical writings, as well ...
Modern Interpretations of Tughras
... There are modern artists of calligraphy that use the characteristic tughra form today ... Examples are the tughras of Russian president Vladimir Putin and Akihito, the Emperor of Japan ...
Mazar-e-Shura - Interments - Tughra Mashhadi
... As his name indicates, Tughra Mashhadi was a native of Mashhad in Iran ... The reason for Ghani's displeasure was the use of abusive language by Tughra when satirising him ... Tughra went to Kashmir with Mirza Abul Qasim (who is also buried in the cemetery) ...