Triticeae Glutens and Industry
Glutens are an essential part of the modern food industry. The industry of wheat goes back to before the Neolithic period when people process grain berries (or corns) singley by hand. During the early phase of cultivation wheats were selected for their harvestability and growability under various climate conditions resulting in the first cultivars. This industry spread into many areas of western Eurasia during neolithization, carrying the more primitive cultivars. These grains were capable of being used for soups (speltiods) or tediously ground into simple flours and baked goods. During the second phase an Emmer wheat was produced that was an alloquadraploid species and this contained more gluten, making baking more efficient. This also spread during the neolithization but in places such cultivars were a minority. One variant of emmer wheat is called durum wheat and is the source of semolina flour, used in making pastas and other food pastes. Comparable varieties are found throughout Eurasia. Finally, emmers wheat was combined with a goat grass (Aegilops tauschii) to form allohexaploid bread wheat, which has a soft fine texture after rising and cooking. The industrial properties of this wheat are based in its glutens, glutens of high elasticity, high heat tolerance of other glutens or that change when subjected to heat to produce stronger polymers.
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