Timeline of Portuguese History - 12th Century

12th Century

Year Date Event
1102 Diego Gemírez, Bishop of Santiago de Compostela, uses force to carry off the relics of St. Victor and St. Fructuosus of Dumes from Braga - recently reinstated as a Metropolitan See.
1103 In the absence of Henry, Count of Portugal in Rome or Jerusalem, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, aided by Soeiro Mendes, governs Portugal.
1105 The Almohads, founded by Ibn Tumart, began as a religious movement to rid Islam of impurities. Most specifically, the Almohades were opposed to anthropomorphisms which had slipped into Iberian Islam. Ibn Tumart's successor, Abd al-Mu'min, turned the movement against non-Muslims, specifically Jews and Christians. Sweeping across North Africa and into Muslim Iberia, the Almohads initiate riots and persecutions of both Muslims and non-Muslims. In some towns Jews and Christians are given the choice of conversion, exile, or death.
1107 Count Raymond of Burgundy dies. The Kingdom of Galicia passes on to his son Alfonso Raimúndez.
1109 1 July Alfonso VI of Castile and León dies. Urraca of Castile, Count Raymond of Burgundy's widow, is his only surviving legitimate child and marries King Alfonso I of Aragon.
25 July Afonso Henriques, son of Henry, Count of Portugal, is born in the city of Guimarães.
1110 Henry, Count of Portugal unsuccessfully besieges King Alfonso I of Aragon in Penafiel.
Urraca of Castile distances herself from her husband Alfonso I of Aragon accusing him of being abusive and infertile.
Henry, Count of Portugal makes common party with Alfonso I of Aragon against Urraca of Castile.
1111 Almoravids led by Sir ibn Abi Bakr occupy Lisbon and Santarém in the west . These cities were occupied by the Almoravids in 1094-95 this suggests a fluctuating border in Portugal.
Conference of Palencia, where Urraca of Castile divides her estates with Henry, Count of Portugal and his wife and her sister Theresa.
Urraca of Castile makes peace with her husband Alfonso I of Aragon, even though they remain separated.
Henry, Count of Portugal, believing Urraca of Castile has betrayed him, besieges her and her husband Alfonso I of Aragon in Sahagún, aided by Urraca's son Alfonso Raimúndez.
Henry, Count of Portugal grants city rights and privileges to Coimbra and captures Santarém from the Moors.
Alfonso Raimúndez, Raymond of Burgundy and Urraca of Castile's son, is proclaimed King of Castile and León as Alfonso VII. This is not recognized.
1112 Henry, Count of Portugal dies. His son Afonso Henriques inherits the County of Portugal, but, being too young, it's his mother, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, that governs the county after her husband's death with the title of Regina (Queen). Santarém recaptured by the Moors.
1114 The marriage between Urraca of Castile and Alfonso I of Aragon is annulled.
The Taifa of Beja and Évora becomes independent.
1116 The armies of Theresa, Countess of Portugal battle against the armies of Urraca of Castile.
1117 Almoravids under Emir Ali ibn Yusuf himself take Coimbra, but abandon the city after a few days.
1120 Afonso Henriques takes sides with the Bishop of Braga against his mother Theresa, Countess of Portugal and her lover, the Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia
The armies of Theresa, Countess of Portugal battle against the armies of Urraca of Castile.
1121 Alfonso Raimúndez comes into Portugal in a mission of sovereignty with his mother Urraca of Castile. Their armies capture Theresa, Countess of Portugal at Lanhoso, that accepts to go free and hold the County of Portugal as a fief of the Kingdom of León.
1122 Afonso Henriques, aged 14, makes himself a Knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora.
1126 Urraca of Castile dies. Her son Alfonso Raimúndez finally becomes King Alfonso VII of Castile and León.
1127 Theresa, Countess of Portugal donates Vimieiro to the Order of Cluny
The Kingdom of León invades Portugal and besieges Guimarães. The Portuguese Knight Egas Moniz de Ribadouro manages to make King Alfonso VII of Castile and León accept promises' of Portuguese fielty.
1128 Theresa, Countess of Portugal donates Soure to the Knights Templar.
24 July Count Afonso Henriques defeats his mother, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, in the Battle of São Mamede (near Guimarães) and becomes sole ruler (Dux - Duke) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles.
1129 6 April Afonso Henriques proclaims himself Prince of Portugal.
1130 Prince Afonso Henriques invades Galicia.
Prince Afonso Henriques' mother, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, dies in Galicia.
The Knights Hospitaller install themselves in Portugal.
1135 Prince Afonso Henriques conquers Leiria from the Moors.
King Alfonso VII of Castile and León is proclaimed Imperator totius Hispaniae.
1137 Battle of Arcos de Valdevez
Peace treaty of Tui, whereby Prince Afonso Henriques acknowledges himself as vassal to King Alfonso VII of Castile and León, through the possession of Astorga.
Prince Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to conquer Lisbon from the Moors.
The Moors retake Leiria.
1139 King Afonso I of Portugal assembles the first assembly of the estates-general of Portugal at Lamego, where he was given the Crown from the Bishop of Braga, to confirm the independence.
King Afonso I of Portugal retakes Leiria from the Moors.
25 July Independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León declared after the Battle of Ourique against the Almoravids led by Ali ibn Yusuf: Prince Afonso Henriques becomes Afonso I, King of Portugal.
1140 The Knights Hospitaller receive lands and privileges from King Afonso I of Portugal.
Portuguese victory in the Battle of Valdevez against Leonese and Castilian forces.
King Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to conquer Lisbon from the Moors.
The Moors retake Leiria.
1142 King Afonso I of Portugal retakes Leiria from the Moors and the town receives its foral (compilation of feudal rights) to stimulate the colonisation of the area.
1143 Treaty of Zamora: Alfonso VII of León and Castille recognizes the Kingdom of Portugal in the presence of King Afonso I of Portugal, witnessed by the papal representative, the Cardinal Guido de Vico, at the Cathedral of Zamora. Both kings promise durable peace between their kingdoms.
King Afonso I of Portugal declares himself vassal to Pope Innocent II, placing the Kingdom of Portugal and himself under the protection of Saint Peter and the Holy See.
1144 The Muridun ("Disciples") under Abul-Qasim Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Qasi rebel in the Algarve. Ibn al-Mundhir takes Silves in his name and the governor of Beja, Sidray ibn Wazir, also supports him. Ibn al-Mundhir and Sidray ibn Wazir kill the garrison of Monchique castle, and 70 men take Mértola by surprise (12 Aug). Soon after the Andalusian governor of Niebla, Yusuf ibn Ahmad al-Bitruji declares for the Muridun. The Almoravid Yahya ibn Ali ibn Ghaniya drives the Muridun back from Seville, and subsequently Sidray ibn Wazir splits off from the other Muridun.
Thes Taifa of Mértola and of Silves again become independent.
The Order of Cistercians installs itself in Portugal, at Tarouca
1145 The Taifa of Badajoz again becomes independent and conquers the Taifa of Mértola.
1146 The Taifa of Mértola gains independence from Badajoz.
King Afonso I of Portugal marries Maud of Savoy, daughter of Amadeus III, Count of Savoy and Maurienne.
1147 The towns of Almada and Palmela, just south of Lisbon, are taken from the Moors.
King Afonso I of Portugal orders the construction of the church and monastery of Church of São Vicente de Fora (St. Vincent outside the Walls), in Lisbon, in honour of St. Vincent the Deacon.
March King Afonso I of Portugal takes Santarém in a surprise attack.
19 May A fleet of almost 200 ships of crusaders (Second Crusade) leaves from Dartmouth in England, consisting of Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, Scottish, and some German crusaders. The fleet was commanded by Arnold III of Aerschot (nephew of Godfrey of Louvain) Christian of Ghistelles, Henry Glanville (constable of Suffolk), Simon of Dover, Andrew of London, and Saher of Archelle.
16 June The crusaders fleet arrives at the northern city of Porto, and are convinced by the bishop, Pedro II Pitões, to continue to Lisbon.
1 July The Siege of Lisbon begins, after the armies of King Afonso I of Portugal were joined by the crusaders.
21 October The Moorish rulers of Lisbon agree to surrender to King Afonso I of Portugal, basically due to the hunger that was felt inside the city walls. The terms of surrender indicated that the Muslim garrison of the city would be allowed to flee.
25 October The city of Lisbon opens its doors to the Christian armies. As soon as the Christians enter the city the terms of surrender were broken. Many Muslims were killed, and the city was thoroughly plundered before King Afonso I of Portugal finally was able to stop the onslaught.
1148 Some of the crusaders that had helped King Afonso I of Portugal conquer Lisbon settle in the newly captured city, and Gilbert of Hastings is elected bishop of the renovated Diocese of Lisbon, but most of the crusaders' fleet continues to the east.
1149 A new Berber dynasty, the Almohad, led by Emir Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi conquers North Africa to the Almoravids and soon invades the Iberian Peninsula.
1150 The Taifas of Badajoz and of Beja and Évora are taken by the Almohads.
1151 King Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to take Alcácer do Sal from the Moors.
The Taifa of Mértola is taken by the Almohads.
1152 The Cistercians build the Monastery of St. John in Tarouca
1153 The Cistercians build the Monastery of Alcobaça.
1154 Sancho, son of King Afonso I of Portugal and future King of Portugal is born.
1155 The Taifa of Silves is taken by the Almohads.
1158 King Afonso I of Portugal conquers Alcácer do Sal from the Moors.
1159 The Castle of Cera (in Tomar) is donated to the Knights Templar.
Évora and Beja, in the southern province of Alentejo, are taken from the Moors.
1160 The city of Tomar is founded by Gualdim Pais.
1161 Évora, Beja and Alcácer do Sal are retaken by the Moors.
1162 King Afonso I of Portugal retakes Beja from the Moors.
1163 The Almohad Caliph Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi dies and is succeeded by Abu Ya'qub Yusuf I.
1165 The Portuguese armies, led by Gerald the Fearless, retake Évora from the Moors.
Negotiations between Portugal and León result in the marriage of Princess Urraca of Portugal, King Afonso I's daughter, with King Ferdinand II of León.
1166 The Portuguese armies take Serpa and Moura (in Alentejo) from the Moors.
1168 Portuguese frontiersman Gerald the Fearless goes into the territory of Badajoz.
1169 King Afonso I of Portugal grants the Knights Templar one third of all they conquer to the Moors in Alentejo.
Gerald the Fearless seizes Badajoz from the Almohads.
King Afonso I of Portugal is wounded by a fall from his horse in Badajoz, and is captured by the competing forces of King Ferdinand II of León. As ransom King Afonso I was obliged to surrender almost all the conquests he had made in Galicia in the previous years as well as Badajoz, that the Leonese gave back to the Almohads as a vassal territory.
1170 The Almohads transfer their capital to Seville.
1174 The kingdom of Aragon recognizes Portugal as independent.
1175 Beja recaptured by Almohads.
1179 Pope Alexander III, in the Papal bull Manifestis Probatum, recognizes Afonso I as King and Portugal as an independent country with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Leonese or Castilian attempts of annexation.
King Ferdinand II of León repudiates his wife, Urraca of Portugal, King Afonso I's daughter.
1184 The Portuguese defeat the Almohads at Santarém.
Yusuf I, Almohad Caliph, dies and is succeeded by Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur.
1185 Sancho I of Portugal becomes King of Portugal.
Sancho I of Portugal founds several new towns and villages and takes great care in populating remote areas in the northern Christian regions of Portugal, notably with Flemings and Burgundians. (to 1212)
6 December King Afonso I of Portugal dies.
1199 The Almohad Caliph Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur dies and is succeeded by Muhammad an-Nasir.

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