Tied-arch Bridge

A tied-arch bridge is an arch bridge in which the outward-directed horizontal forces of the arch, or top chord, are borne as tension by the bottom chord (either tie-rods or the deck itself), rather than by the ground or the bridge foundations.

Thrusts downward on such a bridge's deck are translated, as tension, by vertical ties of the deck to the curved top chord, tending to flatten it and thereby to push its tips outward into the abutments, like other arch bridges. However, in a tied-arch or bowstring bridge, these movements are restrained not by the abutments but by the bottom chord, which ties these tips together, taking the thrusts as tension, rather like the string of a bow that is being flattened. Therefore, the design is often called a bowstring-arch or bowstring-girder bridge.

The elimination of horizontal forces at the abutments allows tied-arch bridges to be constructed with less robust foundations; thus they can be situated atop elevated piers or in areas of unstable soil. In addition, since they do not depend on horizontal compression forces for their integrity, tied-arch bridges can be prefabricated offsite, and subsequently floated, hauled or lifted into place. Notable bridges of this type include the Fremont Bridge in Portland, Oregon as well as the first "computer designed" bridge of this type the Fort Pitt Bridge in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

A bowstring truss bridge is similar in appearance to a tied-arch, however the bowstring truss behaves as truss, not an arch. The visual distinction is a tied-arch bridge will not have substantial diagonal members between the vertical members.

Both the tied-arch bridge and the self-anchored suspension bridge place only vertical loads on the anchorage, and so are suitable where large horizontal forces are difficult to anchor.

Read more about Tied-arch Bridge:  Issues

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Tied-arch Bridge - Issues
... issued by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the FHWA noted that tied-arch bridges are susceptible to problems caused by poor welds at the connection ... In addition, problems with electroslag welds, while not isolated to tied-arch bridges, resulted in costly, time-consuming and inconveniencing repairs ...

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