In European feudal countries, monarchs often were seated on thrones, based in all likelihood on the Roman magisterial chair. These thrones were originally quite simple, especially when compared to their Asian counterparts. One of the grandest and most important was the Throne of Ivan "the Terrible". Dating from the mid-16th century, it is shaped as a high-backed chair with arm rests, and adorned with ivory and walrus bone plaques intricately carved with mythological, heraldic and life scenes. The plaques carved with scenes from the biblical account of King David’s life are of particular relevance, as David was seen as the ideal for Christian monarchs.
The throne of the Byzantine Empire included elaborate automatons of singing birds.
In the Indian subcontinent, the term gaddi (, also called rājgaddī) was reserved for the throne of a Hindu princely state's ruler, while their Muslim colleagues throned on a musnad, even though both were in the shape of a divan. In the Mughal times the throne was called Shāhī takht, while traditional Sanskrit name for the throne was singhāsana (lit., seat of a lion).
In the 'regency' (nominally an Ottoman province, de facto an independent realm) of the Bey of Tunis, the throne was called kursi.
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